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The Immoralist
THE IMMORALIST (French : L\'IMMORALISTE) is a novel by André Gide
André Gide
, published in France in 1902. CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Characters * 2.1 Michel * 2.2 Marceline * 2.3 Ménalque * 3 Critical analyses * 4 Adaptations * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links PLOT The Immoralist
The Immoralist
is a recollection of events that Michel narrates to his three visiting friends. One of those friends solicits job search assistance for Michel by including in a letter to Monsieur D. R., Président du Conseil, a transcript of Michel's first-person account. Important points of Michel's story are his recovery from tuberculosis ; his attraction to a series of Arab boys and to his estate caretaker's son; and the evolution of a new perspective on life and society. Through his journey, Michel finds a kindred spirit in the rebellious Ménalque
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Penguin Classics
PENGUIN CLASSICS is an imprint published by Penguin Books
Penguin Books
, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House . They are published in varying editions throughout the world including in Australia, Canada, China, India, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Literary critics see books in this series as important members of the Western canon
Western canon
, though many titles are translated or of non-Western origin; indeed, the series for decades from its creation included only translations, until it eventually incorporated the Penguin English Library imprint in 1986. The first Penguin Classic was E. V. Rieu 's translation of The Odyssey , published in 1946, and Rieu went on to become general editor of the series
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André Gide
ANDRé PAUL GUILLAUME GIDE (French: ; 22 November 1869 – 19 February 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1947 "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight". Gide's career ranged from its beginnings in the symbolist movement, to the advent of anticolonialism between the two World Wars. Known for his fiction as well as his autobiographical works, Gide exposes to public view the conflict and eventual reconciliation of the two sides of his personality, split apart by a straitlaced traducing of education and a narrow social moralism . Gide's work can be seen as an investigation of freedom and empowerment in the face of moralistic and puritanical constraints, and centres on his continuous effort to achieve intellectual honesty
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Dorothy Bussy
DOROTHY BUSSY (née STRACHEY) (24 July 1865 – 1 May 1960) was an English novelist and translator, close to the Bloomsbury Group
Bloomsbury Group
. CONTENTS * 1 Family background and childhood * 2 Personal life * 3 Writing * 4 References * 5 External links FAMILY BACKGROUND AND CHILDHOOD Graystone Bird (1862-1943), albumen print/NPG x13111. Lady Strachey
Strachey
and daughters, ca. 1893 (Dorothy is 2nd from left) Dorothy Bussy
Dorothy Bussy
was a member of the Strachey
Strachey
family, one of ten children of Jane Strachey
Strachey
and the British Empire
British Empire
soldier and administrator Lt-Gen Sir Richard Strachey
Strachey
. Writer and critic Lytton Strachey
Strachey
and the first English translator of Freud, James Strachey
Strachey
, were her brothers
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Richard Howard
RICHARD JOSEPH HOWARD (born October 13, 1929; adopted as RICHARD JOSEPH ORWITZ) is an American poet , literary critic , essayist , teacher , and translator . He was born in Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio
and is a graduate of Columbia University
Columbia University
, where he studied under Mark Van Doren , and where he now teaches. He lives in New York City
New York City
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Personal life * 3 Works * 3.1 Poetry * 3.2 Critical essays * 3.3 Major translations (French to English) * 4 References * 5 External links LIFEAfter reading French letters at the Sorbonne in 1952-53, Howard had a brief early career as a lexicographer
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Alfred A. Knopf
ALFRED A. KNOPF, INC. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf
Alfred A. Knopf
Sr. in 1915. The publisher had a reputation for a pursuit of perfection and elegant taste. It was acquired by Random House in 1960 and is now part of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The Knopf publishing house is associated with its borzoi colophon (shown at right), which was designed by co-founder Blanche Knopf in 1925. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Awards * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Alfred A. Knopf
Alfred A. Knopf
Sr., 1935 Knopf was founded in 1915 by Alfred A. Knopf, Sr. with a $5,000 advance from his father. The first office was located in New York's Candler Building . The publishing house was officially incorporated in 1918, with Alfred Knopf as president, Blanche Knopf as vice-president, and Samuel Knopf as treasurer
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Vintage Books
VINTAGE BOOKS is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf . The company was purchased by Random House publishing in April 1960, and is currently a subdivision of Random House
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Tuberculosis
TUBERCULOSIS (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium _ Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
_ (MTB). Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
generally affects the lungs , but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis . About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those infected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum , fever , night sweats , and weight loss . The historical term "CONSUMPTION" came about due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms. Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease
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Huguenot
HUGUENOTS (English pronunciation /ˈhjuːɡənɒt/ or /ˈhjuːɡənoʊ/ ; French : _Les huguenots_, ) are the ethnoreligious group of French Protestants
Protestants
who follow the Reformed tradition . The term was used frequently to describe members of the French Reformed
Reformed
Church until the beginning of the 19th century. The term has its origin in 16th-century France. Huguenotswere French Protestants mainly from northern France, who were inspired by the writings of John Calvin and endorsed the Reformed tradition
Reformed tradition
of Protestantism, contrary to the largely German Lutheran
Lutheran
population of Alsace
Alsace
, Moselle , and Montbéliard. Hans Hillerbrand in his _Encyclopedia of Protestantism_ claims the Huguenot
Huguenot
community reached as much as 10% of the French population on the eve of the St
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Hebrew
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی _fārsi_ ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languageswithin the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in