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The Guardian
THE GUARDIAN is a British daily newspaper. It was known from 1821 until 1959 as the MANCHESTER GUARDIAN. Along with its sister papers The Observer and the Guardian Weekly , The Guardian
The Guardian
is part of the Guardian Media Group , owned by the Scott Trust . The Trust was created in 1936 "to secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference." The Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for the Guardian. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to benefit an owner or shareholders. The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion
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Scoop (news)
In journalism , a SCOOP or EXCLUSIVE is an item of news reported by one journalist or news organization before others, and of exceptional originality, importance, surprise, excitement, or secrecy. Scoops are important and likely to interest or concern many people. A scoop is typically a new story, or a new aspect to an existing or breaking news story. Generally the story is unexpected, or surprising, or formerly secret, so the scoop typically comes from an exclusive source . Events witnessed by many people generally cannot become scoops, (e.g., a natural disaster, or the announcement at a press conference ). However, exclusive news content is not always a scoop, as it may not provide the requisite importance or excitement. A scoop may be also defined retrospectively; a story may come to be known as a scoop because of a historical change in perspective of a particular event
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Centre-left Politics
CENTRE-LEFT POLITICS or CENTER-LEFT POLITICS ( American English
American English
), also referred to as MODERATE-LEFT POLITICS, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants. Centre-leftists believe in working within the established systems to improve social justice . The centre-left promotes a degree of social equality that it believes is achievable through promoting equal opportunity . The centre-left has promoted luck egalitarianism , which emphasizes the achievement of equality requires personal responsibility in areas in control by the individual person through their abilities and talents, and social responsibility in areas outside control by the individual person in their abilities or talents
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Newspaper Circulation
A newspaper 's CIRCULATION is the number of copies it distributes on an average day. Circulation is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not always the same as copies sold, often called PAID CIRCULATION, since some newspapers are distributed without cost to the reader. Readership figures are usually higher than circulation figures because of the assumption that a typical copy of the newspaper is read by more than one person. In many countries, circulations are audited by independent bodies such as the Audit
Audit
Bureau of Circulations to assure advertisers that a given newspaper does indeed reach the number of people claimed by the publisher. There are international open access directories such as Mondo Times, but these generally rely on numbers reported by newspapers themselves
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Nonconformism
In English church history, a NONCONFORMIST was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England . Broad use of the term was precipitated after the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, when the Act of Uniformity 1662 re-established the opponents of reform within the Church of England
Church of England
. By the late 19th-century the term specifically included the Reformed Christians ( Presbyterians , Congregationalists and other Calvinist
Calvinist
sects), plus the Baptists
Baptists
and Methodists . The English Dissenters
English Dissenters
such as the Puritans
Puritans
who violated the Act of Uniformity 1559 — typically by practising radical, sometimes separatist , dissent — were retrospectively labelled as nonconformists
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Social Liberalism
SOCIAL LIBERALISM is a political ideology that believes individual liberty requires a level of social justice . Like classical liberalism , social liberalism endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights and liberties , but differs in that it believes the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty , health care , and education . Under social liberalism, the good of the community is viewed as harmonious with the freedom of the individual. Social liberal policies have been widely adopted in much of the capitalist world, particularly following World War II
World War II
. Social liberal ideas and parties tend to be considered centrist or centre-left
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Tabloid (newspaper Format)
A TABLOID is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet . There is no standard size for this newspaper format . The term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, astrology, celebrity gossip and television, and is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets , even if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages. In common usage, tabloid and broadsheet are frequently more descriptive of a newspaper's market position than physical format. The Berliner format used by many prominent European newspapers is sized between the tabloid and the broadsheet. In a newspaper context, the term Berliner is generally used only to describe size, not to refer to other qualities of the publication
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat
WorldCat
, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 ). OCLC
OCLC
also maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system
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Little Circle
The LITTLE CIRCLE was a Manchester
Manchester
-based group of Non-conformist Liberals who held a common agenda with regards political and social reform. The first group met from 1815 onwards to reform political representation and gain social reform in the United Kingdom. The second group operated from 1830 onwards and was key in creating the popularist movement that resulted in the Reform Act 1832
Reform Act 1832
. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 First Little Circle * 3 Second Little Circle * 4 Legacy * 5 References BACKGROUNDBy 1819, Lancashire was represented by two members of parliament (MPs). Voting was restricted to the adult male owners of freehold land valued at 40 shillings or more – the equivalent of about £ 80 as of 2008 – and votes could only be cast in the county town of Lancaster , by a public spoken declaration at the hustings
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Manchester Observer
Non-conformist Liberal glish CEASED PUBLICATION 1821 HEADQUARTERS Manchester
Manchester
THE MANCHESTER OBSERVER was a short-lived non-conformist Liberal newspaper based in Manchester
Manchester
, England. Its radical agenda led to an invitation to Henry "Orator" Hunt to speak at a public meeting in Manchester
Manchester
led to the Peterloo massacre
Peterloo massacre
, and the shutdown of the newspaper. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Publication * 3 Peterloo Massacre
Peterloo Massacre
* 4 Closure by repeated prosecution * 5 References BACKGROUNDBy 1819, the allocation of Parliamentary constituencies did not reflect the distribution of population
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Berliner (format)
BERLINER, or "MIDI", is a newspaper format with pages normally measuring about 315 by 470 millimetres (12.4 in × 18.5 in). The Berliner format is slightly taller and marginally wider than the tabloid /compact format; and is both narrower and shorter than the broadsheet format. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 European newspapers * 3 United States and Canada newspapers * 4 Asian newspapers * 5 South American newspapers * 5.1 Argentina * 5.2 Brazil * 5.3 Chile * 5.4 Peru * 6 Other parts of the world * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ORIGINThe Berliner format is an innovation in press and an alternative to the broadsheet format . The name refers to the city of Berlin
Berlin
, and was originally contrasted with "North German" and "French" sizes in the early 20th century
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Typographical Error
A TYPOGRAPHICAL ERROR (often shortened to TYPO), also called MISPRINT, is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a spelling mistake) of printed material. Historically, this referred to mistakes in manual type-setting (typography ). The term includes errors due to mechanical failure or slips of the hand or finger, but excludes errors of ignorance, such as spelling errors , or the flip-flopping of words such as "than" and "then". Before the arrival of printing, the "copyist's mistake" or "scribal error" was the equivalent for manuscripts . Most typos involve simple duplication, omission, transposition, or substitution of a small number of characters. FAT FINGER, or "FAT-FINGER SYNDROME", a slang term, refers to an unwanted secondary action when typing. When one's finger is bigger than the touch zone, there can be inaccuracy in the fine motor movements and accidents occur. This is common with touchscreens. One may hit two adjacent keys on the keyboard in a single keystroke
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Whistleblower
A WHISTLEBLOWER (also written as WHISTLE-BLOWER or WHISTLE BLOWER) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical , or not correct within an organization that is either private or public. The information of alleged wrongdoing can be classified in many ways: violation of company policy/rules, law , regulation , or threat to public interest/national security, as well as fraud, and corruption . Those who become whistleblowers can choose to bring information or allegations to surface either internally or externally. Internally, a whistleblower can bring his/her accusations to the attention of other people within the accused organization such as an immediate supervisor. Externally, a whistleblower can bring allegations to light by contacting a third party outside of an accused organization such as the media, government, law enforcement, or those who are concerned
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Offshore Bank
An OFFSHORE BANK is a bank located outside the country of residence of its depositors, with most of its account holders being non-residents of the jurisdiction. An account held in a foreign account, especially in a tax haven country, is often described as an OFFSHORE ACCOUNT. Typically, an individual or company will maintain an offshore account in a low-tax jurisdiction (or tax haven) that provides financial and legal advantages, such as: * greater privacy (see also bank secrecy , a principle born with the 1934 Swiss Banking Act ) * little or no taxation (i.e
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Verizon Communications
VERIZON COMMUNICATIONS, INC. ( listen (help ·info )) (/vəˈraɪzən/ və-RY-zən ) (simply known as VERIZON, stylized as VERIZON), is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and the largest U.S. wireless communications service provider as of September 2014 , and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average . The company is based at 1095 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan
, New York City
New York City
, but is incorporated in Delaware
Delaware
. What eventually became Verizon was founded as BELL ATLANTIC, which was one of the seven Baby Bells that were formed after AT&T Corporation was forced to relinquish its control of the Bell System
Bell System
by order of the Justice Department of the United States
United States

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