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The German Ideology
THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
around April or early May 1846. Marx and Engels did not find a publisher, but the work was later retrieved and published for the first time in 1932 by David Riazanov through the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow
Moscow
. The multi-part book consists of many satirically written polemics against Bruno Bauer
Bruno Bauer
, other Young Hegelians
Young Hegelians
, and Max Stirner 's The Ego and Its Own (1844). Part I, however, is a work of exposition giving the appearance of being the work for which the "Theses on Feuerbach " served as an outline. The work is a restatement of the theory of history Marx was beginning to call the "materialist conception of history "
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Historical Determinism
HISTORICAL DETERMINISM is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism
Marxism
) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions
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Wage Labour
WAGE LABOUR (also WAGE LABOR in American English ) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer , where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention. A WAGE LABOURER is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labour power in this way. In modern mixed economies such as those of the OECD countries, it is currently the most common form of work arrangement
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Capital (economics)
In economics , CAPITAL consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. CAPITAL GOODS, REAL CAPITAL, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services . Adam Smith defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510. How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable. It is also possible that advances make an obsolete form of capital practical again
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Capitalist Mode Of Production (Marxist Theory)
In Karl Marx 's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the CAPITALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies . Private money-making in various forms (renting, banking, merchant trade, production for profit , etc.) preceded the development of the capitalist mode of production as such. The capitalist mode of production proper, based on wage-labour and private ownership of the means of production, and on industrial technology, began to grow rapidly in Western Europe from the industrial revolution , later extending to most of the world. The capitalist mode of production is characterized by private ownership of the means of production , extraction of surplus value by the owning class for the purpose of capital accumulation , wage-based labour , and, at least as far as commodities are concerned, being market-based
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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Class In Marxist Theory
In Marxism, MARXIAN CLASS THEORY asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position. A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests. Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Private Property
PRIVATE PROPERTY is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities . Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property , which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative ) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities . Private property
Private property
is further distinguished from personal property , which refers to property for personal use and consumption. Private property
Private property
is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economics * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Gate with a private property sign. Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Working Class
The WORKING CLASS (also LABOURING CLASS and PROLETARIAT ) are the people employed for wages , especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most service-work jobs. The working class only rely upon their earnings from wage labour , thereby, the category includes most of the working population of industrialized economies , of the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies , and of the rural workforce. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat, and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers ) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature)
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Surplus Value
SURPLUS VALUE is a central concept in Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy. Marx did not himself invent the term: he developed the concept. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx's use of this concept is different, because for Marx, the Mehrwert refers to the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital. Hence, Marx's use of Mehrwert has always been translated as "surplus value", distinguishing it from "value-added". According to Marx's theory, surplus value is equal to the new value created by workers in excess of their own labor-cost, which is appropriated by the capitalist as profit when products are sold
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Proletariat
The PROLETARIAT (/ˌproʊlᵻˈtɛəri.ət/ from Latin
Latin
proletarius) is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power (their ability to work). A member of such a class is a PROLETARIAN. CONTENTS * 1 Proletarii of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
* 2 Marxist theory * 3 Prole drift * 4 See also * 5 Reference notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links PROLETARII OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Further information: Constitution of the Roman Republic The proletarii constituted a social class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. The origin of the name is presumably linked with the census , which Roman authorities conducted every five years to produce a register of citizens and their property from which their military duties and voting privileges could be determined
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, SOCIALISM, also called the SOCIALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism . The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning , while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution . The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management , so that the social surplus accrues to the working class and society as a whole
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Scientific Socialism
SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM is the term first used by Friedrich Engels to describe the social-political-economic theory first pioneered by Karl Marx . The purported reason why this form of socialism is "scientific socialism" (as opposed to "utopian socialism ") is that it is said to be based on the scientific method , in that its theories are held to an empirical standard, observations are essential to its development, and these can result in changes and/or falsification of elements of the theory. Although the term socialism has come to mean specifically a combination of political and economic science, it is also applicable to a broader area of science encompassing what is now considered sociology and the humanities . The distinction between utopian and scientific socialism originated with Marx, who criticized the utopian characteristics of French socialism and English and Scottish political economy
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Commodity (Marxism)
In classical political economy and especially Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy , a COMMODITY is any good or service ("products" or "activities" ) produced by human labour and offered as a product for general sale on the market. Some other priced goods are also treated as commodities, e.g. human labor-power , works of art and natural resources, even though they may not be produced specifically for the market, or be non-reproducible goods. Marx's analysis of the commodity (in German: Kaufware, i.e. merchandise, ware for sale) is intended to help solve the problem of what establishes the economic value of goods, using the labor theory of value . This problem was extensively debated by Adam Smith , David Ricardo , and Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow , among others
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Marxist Sociology
MARXIST SOCIOLOGY is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective. Marxism itself can be recognized as both a political philosophy and a sociology , particularly so far as it attempts to remain scientific, systematic and objective rather than purely normative and prescriptive. Marxist sociology is "a form of conflict theory associated with ... Marxism's objective of developing a positive (empirical ) science of capitalist society as part of the mobilization of a revolutionary working class ." The American Sociological Association has a section dedicated to the issues of Marxist sociology that is "interested in examining how insights from Marxist methodology and Marxist analysis can help explain the complex dynamics of modern society". Marxist sociology would come to facilitate the developments of critical theory and cultural studies as loosely distinct disciplines
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Immiseration Thesis
In Marxist theory and Marxian economics , the IMMISERATION THESIS (also referred to as EMISERATION THESIS) is derived from Karl Marx's analysis of economic development in capitalism , implying that the nature of capitalist production stabilizes real wages , reducing wage growth relative to total value creation in the economy, leading to worsening alienation in the workplace. The immiseration thesis is related to Marx's analysis of the rising organic composition of capital and reduced demand for labor relative to capital equipment as technology develops
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