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The Eighteenth Brumaire Of Louis Napoleon
The Eighteenth Brumaire
Brumaire
of Louis Napoleon
Napoleon
(German: Der 18te Brumaire des Louis Napoleon) was an essay written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
between December 1851 and March 1852, and originally published in 1852 in Die Revolution, a German monthly magazine published in New York City
New York City
and established by Joseph Weydemeyer. Later English editions, such as an 1869 Hamburg
Hamburg
edition, were entitled The Eighteenth Brumaire
Brumaire
of Louis Bonaparte. The essay discusses the French coup of 1851
French coup of 1851
in which Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte assumed dictatorial powers
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Historical Determinism
Historical determinism is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions. See also[edit]Geographic determinism Geopolitics Bad faith (existentialism) Determinism Economic determinism False consciousness False necessity Free Will Human nature Hegelianism Dialectical materialism Self determinationExternal links[edit]Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo
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Factors Of Production (Marxism)
Production
Production
may be: In Economics: Production
Production
(economics) Outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) Produc
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Capital (economics)
In economics, capital consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. Capital goods, real capital, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services.[1] Adam Smith
Adam Smith
defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510.[2] How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable
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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Class Conflict
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of communist Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Marxian Class Theory
In Marxism, Marxian class theory
Marxian class theory
asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position.[1] A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests.[2] Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Capitalist Mode Of Production (Marxist Theory)
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies. Private money-making in various forms (renting, banking, merchant trade, production for profit and so on) preceded the development of the capitalist mode of production as such
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Wage Labour
Wage
Wage
labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract.[1] These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined.[2] In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention
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Marx's Theory Of Human Nature
Some Marxists[who?] posit what they deem to be Karl Marx's theory of human nature, which they accord an important place in his critique of capitalism, his conception of communism, and his 'materialist conception of history'. Marx, however, does not refer to human nature as such, but to Gattungswesen, which is generally translated as 'species-being' or 'species-essence'. According to a note from the young Marx in the Manuscripts of 1844, the term is derived from Ludwig Feuerbach’s philosophy, in which it refers both to the nature of each human and of humanity as a whole.[1] However, in the sixth Theses on Feuerbach
Theses on Feuerbach
(1845), Marx criticizes the traditional conception of human nature as a species which incarnates itself in each individual, instead arguing that the conception of human nature is formed by the totality of social relations
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Productive Forces
"Productive forces", "productive powers", or "forces of production" (in German, Produktivkräfte), is a central idea in Marxism
Marxism
and historical materialism. In Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels's own critique of political economy, it refers to the combination of the means of labor (tools, machinery, land, infrastructure, and so on) with human labour power. Marx and Engels probably derived the concept from Adam Smith's reference to the "productive powers of labour" (see e.g
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Scientific Socialism
Scientific socialism
Scientific socialism
is a term coined in 1840 by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his What is Property? to mean a society ruled by a scientific government, i.e. one whose sovereignity rests upon reason, rather than sheer will:Thus, in a given society, the authority of man over man is inversely proportional to the stage of intellectual development which that society has reached; and the probable duration of that authority can be calculated from the more or less general desire for a true government, — that is, for a scientific government. And just as the right of force and the right of artifice retreat before the steady advance of justice, and must finally be extinguished in equality, so the sovereignty of the will yields to the sovereignty of the reason, and must at last be lost in scientific socialism.[1]Later in 1880, Friedrich Engels[2] used the term to describe Karl Marx's social-political-economic theory
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism. The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning, while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution
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Surplus Product
Surplus product
Surplus product
(German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in his critique of political economy
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Surplus Value
Surplus value
Surplus value
is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx uses the term Mehrwert to describe the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital
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Value-form
The value-form or form of value (German: Wertform)[1] is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy, Marxism[2] and post-Marxism.[3] It refers to the social form of a tradeable thing as a symbol of value, which contrasts with its physical features, as an object which can satisfy some human need or serves a useful purpose.[4] The physical appearance of a commodity is directly observable, but the meaning of its social form is not.[5] Narrating the paradoxical oddities and metaphysical niceties of ordinary things when they become instruments of trade,[6] Marx seeks to provide a brief morphology of the category of economic value as such—what its substance really is, the forms which this substance takes, and how its magnitude is determined or expressed
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