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The Crystal Palace
THE CRYSTAL PALACE was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London
Hyde Park, London
, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. More than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in its 990,000-square-foot (92,000 m2) exhibition space to display examples of technology developed in the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. Designed by Joseph Paxton , the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m). The invention of the cast plate glass method in 1848 made possible the production of large sheets of cheap but strong glass, and its use in the Crystal Palace created a structure with the greatest area of glass ever seen in a building and astonished visitors with its clear walls and ceilings that did not require interior lights
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Joseph Paxton
SIR JOSEPH PAXTON (3 August 1803 – 8 June 1865) was an English gardener , architect and Member of Parliament, best known for designing the Crystal Palace , and for cultivating the Cavendish banana , the most consumed banana in the Western world. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Chatsworth * 2.1 Greenhouses * 3 Crystal Palace * 4 Publishing * 5 Political career * 6 Later life * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links EARLY LIFEPaxton was born in 1803, the seventh son of a farming family, in Milton Bryan , Bedfordshire. Some references, incorrectly, list his birth year as 1801. This is, as he admitted in later life, a result of misinformation he provided in his teens, which enabled him to enrol at Chiswick Gardens. He became a garden boy at the age of fifteen for Sir Gregory Osborne Page-Turner at Battlesden Park , near Woburn
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Cast Iron
CAST IRON is a group of iron -carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon (C) ranging from 1.8–4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content (~0.8%) are known as steel
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Plate-glass
FLAT GLASS, SHEET GLASS or PLATE GLASS is a type of glass , initially produced in plane form, commonly used for windows , glass doors, transparent walls, and windscreens . For modern architectural and automotive applications, the flat glass is sometimes bent after production of the plane sheet. Flat glass
Flat glass
stands in contrast to container glass (used for bottles, jars, cups) and glass fibre (used for thermal insulation, in fiberglass composites, and optical communication ). Glass
Glass
for flat glass has a higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide content than container glass, and a lower silica, calcium oxide , and aluminium oxide content. (From the lower soluble oxide content comes the better chemical durability of container glass against water, which is required especially for storage of beverages and food). Most flat glass is soda-lime glass , produced by the float glass process
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Hyde Park, London
HYDE PARK is a Grade I-registered major park in Central London
London
. It is the largest of four Royal Parks that form a chain from the entrance of Kensington Palace
Kensington Palace
through Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park, via Hyde Park Corner
Hyde Park Corner
and Green Park past the main entrance to Buckingham Palace . The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water . The park was established by Henry VIII in 1536 when he took the land from Westminster
Westminster
Abbey and used it as a hunting ground. It opened to the public in 1637 and quickly became popular, particularly for May Day parades. Major improvements occurred in the early 18th century under the direction of Queen Caroline
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Great Exhibition
The GREAT EXHIBITION OF THE WORKS OF INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS or THE GREAT EXHIBITION, sometimes referred to as the CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park , London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World\'s Fairs , exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, and it was a much anticipated event. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert
Prince Albert
, husband of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria

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Industrial Revolution
The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines , new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power , the increasing use of steam power , the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system . Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
began in Great Britain
Great Britain
and most of the important technological innovations were British. Laws also shaped the revolution, such as courts ruling in favor of property rights
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Cast Plate Glass
ARCHITECTURAL GLASS is glass that is used as a building material . It is most typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope, including windows in the external walls. Glass
Glass
is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety type , which include reinforced, toughened and laminated glasses. A building in Canterbury, England, which displays its long history in different building styles and glazing of every century from the 16th to the 20th included
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Douglas Jerrold
DOUGLAS WILLIAM JERROLD (London 3 January 1803 – 8 June 1857 London) was an English dramatist and writer. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Career in the theatre * 3 Career as a journalist * 4 Works * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYJerrold's father, Samuel Jerrold, was an actor and lessee of the little theatre of Wilsby near Cranbrook in Kent. In 1807 Douglas moved to Sheerness
Sheerness
, where he spent his childhood. He occasionally took a child part on the stage, but his father's profession held little attraction for him. In December 1813 he joined the guardship Namur , where he had Jane Austen
Jane Austen
's brother Francis as captain, and served as a midshipman until the peace of 1815. He saw nothing of the war save a number of wounded soldiers from Waterloo , but he retained an affection for the sea
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Punch Magazine
PUNCH; OR, THE LONDON CHARIVARI was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells . Historically, it was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s, when it helped to coin the term "cartoon " in its modern sense as a humorous illustration. After the 1940s, when its circulation peaked, it went into a long decline, closing in 1992. It was revived in 1996, but closed again in 2002. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Later years * 2.1 Punch table * 3 Gallery of selected early covers * 4 Contributors * 4.1 Editors * 4.2 Cartoonists * 4.3 Authors * 5 Influence * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Works cited * 9 External links HISTORYPunch was founded on 17 July 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells , on an initial investment of £25. It was jointly edited by Mayhew and Mark Lemon
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Sydenham Hill
SYDENHAM HILL is a hill and an affluent locality in south east London. It is also the name of a road which runs along the northern eastern part of the ridge, forming the boundary between the London Borough of Southwark
Southwark
, London Borough of Bromley and the London Borough of Lewisham
Lewisham
. The highest part of the hill is the highest point of the Boroughs of both Southwark
Southwark
and Lewisham, as well as being one of the highest points in the whole of London , at 367 feet (112 m). The road connects the A205 road in the north-east at Forest Hill with the A212 road to the south-west at Crystal Palace . Sydenham Hill railway station , Sydenham Hill Wood nature reserve and Dulwich
Dulwich
and Sydenham Hill Golf course are located to the west and within Southwark
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Crystal Palace, London
CRYSTAL PALACE is an area of South London , England, named after the Crystal Palace Exhibition building which stood in the area from 1854 to 1936. Approximately eight miles (13 km) southeast of Charing Cross , it includes one of the highest points in London , at 367 feet (112 m), offering views over the capital. The area has no defined boundaries and straddles five London boroughs and three postal districts , although there is a Crystal Palace electoral ward and Crystal Palace Park
Crystal Palace Park
in the London Borough of Bromley
London Borough of Bromley
. It is contiguous with Anerley , Dulwich Wood
Dulwich Wood
, Gipsy Hill
Gipsy Hill
, Penge
Penge
, South Norwood , Sydenham
Sydenham
and Upper Norwood
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Crystal Palace Park
CRYSTAL PALACE PARK is a Victorian pleasure ground , used for cultural and sporting events. It is located in the south-east London suburb of Crystal Palace , which was in turn named after the Crystal Palace Exhibition building, which had been moved from Hyde Park, London
London
after the 1851 Great Exhibition and rebuilt with some modifications and enlargements to form the centrepiece of the pleasure ground, before being destroyed by fire in 1936. The park features full-scale models of dinosaurs in a landscape, a maze , lakes, and a concert bowl . This site contains the National Sports Centre , previously a football stadium that hosted the FA Cup Final from 1895 to 1914 as well as Crystal Palace F.C. 's matches from their formation in 1905 until the club was forced to relocate during the First World War
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Crystal Palace National Sports Centre
The NATIONAL SPORTS CENTRE at Crystal Palace in south London
London
, England
England
is a large sports centre and athletics stadium. It was opened in 1964 in Crystal Palace Park
Crystal Palace Park
, close to the site of the former Crystal Palace Exhibition building which had been destroyed by fire in 1936, and is on the same site as the former FA Cup Final
FA Cup Final
venue which was used here between 1895 and 1914. It was one of the five National Sports
Sports
Centres , run on behalf of Sport England
England
, but responsibility was transferred to the London Development Agency (now GLA Land and Property ) and is managed by Greenwich Leisure Limited , under their Better brand logo
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Crystal Palace F.C.
CRYSTAL PALACE FOOTBALL CLUB is a professional football club based in South Norwood , London , that plays in the Premier League , the top tier of English football . The club was founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building by the owners of FA Cup Final stadium which was situated inside its historic grounds. Palace played their home games at the Cup Final venue until 1915 when the First World War forced them to move out and play at Herne Hill Velodrome and The Nest . In 1924, the club moved to their current home at Selhurst Park . Palace have been