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The Crystal Palace
THE CRYSTAL PALACE was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London , to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. More than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in its 990,000-square-foot (92,000 m2) exhibition space to display examples of technology developed in the Industrial Revolution . Designed by Joseph Paxton , the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m). The invention of the cast plate glass method in 1848 made possible the production of large sheets of cheap but strong glass, and its use in the Crystal Palace created a structure with the greatest area of glass ever seen in a building and astonished visitors with its clear walls and ceilings that did not require interior lights. The name of the building resulted from a piece penned by the playwright Douglas Jerrold , who in July 1850 wrote in the satirical magazine _Punch _ about the forthcoming Great Exhibition, referring to a "palace of very crystal". After the exhibition, it was decided to relocate the Palace to an area of South London to be rebuilt on Penge Common, at the top of Penge Peak next to Sydenham Hill , an affluent suburb of large villas. It stood there from 1854 until its destruction by fire in 1936
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Joseph Paxton
SIR JOSEPH PAXTON (3 August 1803 – 8 June 1865) was an English gardener , architect and Member of Parliament, best known for designing the Crystal Palace , and for cultivating the Cavendish banana , the most consumed banana in the Western world. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Chatsworth * 2.1 Greenhouses * 3 Crystal Palace * 4 Publishing * 5 Political career * 6 Later life * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links EARLY LIFEPaxton was born in 1803, the seventh son of a farming family, in Milton Bryan , Bedfordshire. Some references, incorrectly, list his birth year as 1801. This is, as he admitted in later life, a result of misinformation he provided in his teens, which enabled him to enrol at Chiswick Gardens. He became a garden boy at the age of fifteen for Sir Gregory Osborne Page-Turner at Battlesden Park , near Woburn . After several moves, he obtained a position in 1823 at the Horticultural Society's Chiswick Gardens. CHATSWORTH _ The Conservative Wall_ at Chatsworth The Horticultural Society's gardens were close to the gardens of William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire at Chiswick House . The duke met the young gardener as he strolled in his gardens and became impressed with his skill and enthusiasm. He offered the 20-year-old Paxton the position of head gardener at Chatsworth , which was considered one of the finest landscaped gardens of the time
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Cast Iron
CAST IRON is a group of iron -carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon (C) ranging from 1.8–4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content (~0.8%) are known as steel . While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point (lowest liquid point) of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures usually range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C (2,100 to 2,190 °F), which is about 300 °C (540 °F) lower than the melting point of pure iron
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Plate-glass
FLAT GLASS, SHEET GLASS or PLATE GLASS is a type of glass , initially produced in plane form, commonly used for windows , glass doors, transparent walls, and windscreens . For modern architectural and automotive applications, the flat glass is sometimes bent after production of the plane sheet. Flat glass stands in contrast to container glass (used for bottles, jars, cups) and glass fibre (used for thermal insulation, in fiberglass composites, and optical communication ). Glass
Glass
for flat glass has a higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide content than container glass, and a lower silica, calcium oxide , and aluminium oxide content. (From the lower soluble oxide content comes the better chemical durability of container glass against water, which is required especially for storage of beverages and food). Most flat glass is soda-lime glass , produced by the float glass process . Other processes for making flat glass include: * Rolling (Rolled plate glass , Figure rolled glass ) * Overflow downdraw method * Blown plate method * Broad sheet method * Window
Window
crown glass technique * Cylinder blown sheet method * Fourcault process
Fourcault process
* Machine drawn cylinder sheet method * Plate polishing QUALITY AND DAMAGEScratches can occur on sheet glass from accidental causes
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Hyde Park, London
HYDE PARK is a Grade I-registered major park in Central London
London
. It is the largest of four Royal Parks that form a chain from the entrance of Kensington Palace through Kensington Gardens
Kensington Gardens
and Hyde Park, via Hyde Park Corner
Hyde Park Corner
and Green Park
Green Park
past the main entrance to Buckingham Palace . The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water . The park was established by Henry VIII in 1536 when he took the land from Westminster
Westminster
Abbey and used it as a hunting ground. It opened to the public in the early 17th century and quickly became popular, particularly for May Day
May Day
parades. Major improvements occurred in the early 18th century under the direction of Queen Caroline . Several duels took place in Hyde Park during this time, often involving members of the nobility. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in the park, for which the Crystal Palace , designed by Joseph Paxton , was erected. Free speech
Free speech
and demonstrations have been a key feature of Hyde Park since the 19th century. Speaker\'s Corner has been established as a point of free speech and debate since 1872, while the Chartists , the Reform League , the suffragettes , and the Stop the War Coalition have all held protests there
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Great Exhibition
The GREAT EXHIBITION OF THE WORKS OF INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS or THE GREAT EXHIBITION, sometimes referred to as the CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park , London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World\'s Fairs , exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, and it was a much anticipated event. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert
Prince Albert
, husband of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
. It was attended by famous people of the time, including Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
, Samuel Colt , members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë , Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
, George Eliot
George Eliot
and Alfred Tennyson . Music for the opening was under the direction of Sir George Thomas Smart and the continuous music from the exhibited organs for the Queen's procession was "under the superintendence of William Sterndale Bennett "
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Industrial Revolution
The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines , new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power , the increasing use of steam power , the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system . Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
began in Great Britain
Great Britain
and most of the important technological innovations were British. Laws also shaped the revolution, such as courts ruling in favor of property rights . An entrepreneurial spirit and consumer revolution helped drive industrialisation in Britain which after 1800 was emulated in Belgium, the United States, and France. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth
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Cast Plate Glass
ARCHITECTURAL GLASS is glass that is used as a building material . It is most typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope, including windows in the external walls. Glass
Glass
is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety type , which include reinforced, toughened and laminated glasses. A building in Canterbury, England, which displays its long history in different building styles and glazing of every century from the 16th to the 20th included
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Douglas Jerrold
DOUGLAS WILLIAM JERROLD (London 3 January 1803 – 8 June 1857 London) was an English dramatist and writer. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Career in the theatre * 3 Career as a journalist * 4 Works * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYJerrold's father, Samuel Jerrold, was an actor and lessee of the little theatre of Wilsby near Cranbrook in Kent. In 1807 Douglas moved to Sheerness , where he spent his childhood. He occasionally took a child part on the stage, but his father's profession held little attraction for him. In December 1813 he joined the guardship _Namur _, where he had Jane Austen 's brother Francis as captain, and served as a midshipman until the peace of 1815. He saw nothing of the war save a number of wounded soldiers from Waterloo , but he retained an affection for the sea. The peace of 1815 ruined Jerrold's father; on 1 January 1816 he took his family to London, where Douglas began work as a printer's apprentice, and in 1819 he became a compositor in the printing-office of the _Sunday Monitor_. Several short papers and copies of verses by him had already appeared in the sixpenny magazines, and a criticism of the opera _ Der Freischütz _ was admired by the editor, who requested further contributions. Thus Jerrold became a professional journalist. Jerrold's figure was small and spare, and in later years bowed almost to deformity
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Punch Magazine
PUNCH; OR, THE LONDON CHARIVARI was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells . Historically, it was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s, when it helped to coin the term "cartoon " in its modern sense as a humorous illustration. After the 1940s, when its circulation peaked, it went into a long decline, closing in 1992. It was revived in 1996, but closed again in 2002. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Later years * 2.1 Punch table * 3 Gallery of selected early covers * 4 Contributors * 4.1 Editors * 4.2 Cartoonists * 4.3 Authors * 5 Influence * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Works cited * 9 External links HISTORYPunch was founded on 17 July 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells , on an initial investment of £25. It was jointly edited by Mayhew and Mark Lemon . It was subtitled The London Charivari in homage to Charles Philipon
Charles Philipon
's French satirical humour magazine Le Charivari
Le Charivari
. Reflecting their satiric and humorous intent, the two editors took for their name and masthead the anarchic glove puppet, Mr. Punch, of Punch and Judy ; the name also referred to a joke made early on about one of the magazine's first editors, Lemon, that "punch is nothing without lemon"
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Sydenham Hill
SYDENHAM HILL is a hill and an affluent locality in south east London. It is also the name of a road which runs along the northern eastern part of the ridge, forming the boundary between the London Borough of Southwark
Southwark
, London Borough of Bromley and the London Borough of Lewisham . The highest part of the hill is the highest point of the Boroughs of both Southwark
Southwark
and Lewisham, as well as being one of the highest points in the whole of London , at 367 feet (112 m). The road connects the A205 road in the north-east at Forest Hill with the A212 road to the south-west at Crystal Palace . Sydenham Hill railway station , Sydenham Hill Wood nature reserve and _ Dulwich and Sydenham Hill Golf course_ are located to the west and within Southwark. As well as Southwark
Southwark
and Lewisham, the London boroughs of Lambeth , Croydon and Bromley all have part of the hill within their jurisdiction. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Area * 4 Transport * 4.1 Bus * 4.2 Railway * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links GEOGRAPHY College Road, SE21, Sydenham Hill Sydenham Hill is approximately 5.6 miles to the south east of Charing Cross
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Crystal Palace, London
CRYSTAL PALACE is an area of South London , England, named after the Crystal Palace Exhibition building which stood in the area from 1854 to 1936. Approximately eight miles (13 km) southeast of Charing Cross , it includes one of the highest points in London
London
, at 367 feet (112 m), offering views over the capital. The area has no defined boundaries and straddles five London boroughs and three postal districts , although there is a Crystal Palace electoral ward and Crystal Palace Park
Crystal Palace Park
in the London Borough of Bromley . It is contiguous with Anerley , Dulwich Wood , Gipsy Hill , Penge , South Norwood , Sydenham
Sydenham
and Upper Norwood . The district was a natural oak forest until development began in the 19th century, and before the arrival of the Crystal Palace was known as Sydenham
Sydenham
Hill . The Norwood Ridge and an historic oak tree were used to mark parish boundaries. The area is represented by three parliamentary constituencies , four London Assembly constituencies
London Assembly constituencies
and fourteen local councillors
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Crystal Palace Park
CRYSTAL PALACE PARK is a Victorian pleasure ground , used for cultural and sporting events. It is located in the south-east London suburb of Crystal Palace , which was in turn named after the Crystal Palace Exhibition building, which had been moved from Hyde Park, London after the 1851 Great Exhibition and rebuilt with some modifications and enlargements to form the centrepiece of the pleasure ground, before being destroyed by fire in 1936. The park features full-scale models of dinosaurs in a landscape, a maze , lakes, and a concert bowl . This site contains the National Sports Centre , previously a football stadium that hosted the FA Cup Final from 1895 to 1914 as well as Crystal Palace F.C. 's matches from their formation in 1905 until the club was forced to relocate during the First World War . The London County Cricket Club also played matches at Crystal Palace Park Cricket Ground from 1900 to 1908, when they folded, and the cricket ground staged a number of other first-class cricket matches and had first been used by Kent County Cricket Club as a first-class venue in 1864. The park is situated halfway along the Norwood Ridge at one of its highest points. This ridge offers views northward to central London, eastward to the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge and Greenwich , and southward to Croydon and the North Downs
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Crystal Palace National Sports Centre
The NATIONAL SPORTS CENTRE at Crystal Palace in south London
London
, England
England
is a large sports centre and athletics stadium. It was opened in 1964 in Crystal Palace Park , close to the site of the former Crystal Palace Exhibition building which had been destroyed by fire in 1936, and is on the same site as the former FA Cup Final venue which was used here between 1895 and 1914. It was one of the five National Sports
Sports
Centres , run on behalf of Sport England
England
, but responsibility was transferred to the London Development Agency (now GLA Land and Property ) and is managed by Greenwich Leisure Limited , under their Better brand logo. The sports centre building was designed by the LCC Architects Department under Sir Leslie Martin between 1953–54 and is a Grade II* listed building . It has a particularly interesting interior: there is a central concourse with a complex and delicate exposed concrete frame supporting the roof, which has a folded teak lining, and to one side a series of pools, including a 50m competition pool, and a diving pool with a dramatic reinforced concrete diving platform, and to the other side a smaller sports arena. The athletics stadium has a capacity of 15,500, which can be increased to 24,000 with temporary seating. It hosts international athletics meetings
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Crystal Palace F.C.
CRYSTAL PALACE FOOTBALL CLUB is a professional football club based in South Norwood , London , that plays in the Premier League , the top tier of English football . The club was founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building by the owners of FA Cup Final stadium which was situated inside its historic grounds. Palace played their home games at the Cup Final venue until 1915 when the First World War forced them to move out and play at Herne Hill Velodrome and The Nest . In 1924, the club moved to their current home at Selhurst Park . Palace have been FA Cup finalists twice, in 1990 and 2016 , losing to Manchester United on both occasions. Palace were one of the original founding members of the Premier League. The club enjoyed their best ever top flight season in 1990–91 , when they challenged for the English league title , eventually finishing in third place in the top tier, their highest ever league position. Palace were denied a place in Europe at the end of that season due to the partial UEFA ban on English clubs following the Heysel Stadium disaster . The club have been second tier champions twice and hold the record for the most play-off wins for promotion to the top flight, winning the final four times. Palace were also winners of the Full Members Cup in 1991 when they beat Everton in the Wembley final
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