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The Communist Manifesto
_THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO_ (originally _MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY_) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels . Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London (in German as _Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei_) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the _Manifesto_ was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The _Communist Manifesto_ summarises Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism . CONTENTS * 1 Synopsis * 2 Writing * 3 Publication * 3.1 Initial publication and obscurity, 1848–72 * 3.2 Rise, 1872–1917 * 3.3 Ubiquity, 1917–present * 4 Legacy * 5 Influences on _The Communist Manifesto_ * 6 References * 7 Source text * 8 Footnotes * 9 External links SYNOPSISThe _Communist Manifesto_ is divided into a preamble and four sections, the last of these a short conclusion
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Karl Marx
KARL MARX (/mɑːrks/ ; German: ; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Prussian-born philosopher , economist , political theorist , sociologist , journalist , and revolutionary socialist . Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy . As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England , where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet _ The Communist Manifesto _. His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history. Marx's theories about society, economics, and politics—collectively understood as Marxism —hold that human societies develop through class struggle ; in capitalism , this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie ) that control the means of production and working classes (known as the proletariat ) that enable these means by selling their labour for wages. Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism , Marx predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism
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Friedrich Engels
FRIEDRICH ENGELS (English: /ˈɛŋɡəlz/ or /ˈɛŋəlz/ ; German: ; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher , social scientist , journalist , and businessman . He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. In 1845, he published _The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
_, based on personal observations and research in Manchester
Manchester
. In 1848, he co-authored _ The Communist Manifesto _ with Marx, though he also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works, and later he supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write _ Das Kapital
Das Kapital
_. After Marx's death, Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organised Marx's notes on the _ Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
_, which he later published as the "fourth volume" of _Capital_. He also made contributions to family economics
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Communist League
The COMMUNIST LEAGUE (German : Bund der Kommunisten) was an international political party established in June 1847 in London
London
, England
England
. The organisation was formed through the merger of the League of the Just , headed by Karl Schapper and the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels
Brussels
, Belgium
Belgium
, in which Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels were the dominant personalities. The Communist League
Communist League
is regarded as the first Marxist political party and it was on behalf of this group that Marx and Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto
Communist Manifesto
late in 1847. The Communist League
Communist League
was formally disbanded in 1852, following the Cologne Communist Trial . CONTENTS* 1 Organisational history * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Creation of the Communist League
Communist League
* 2 Members * 3 Other 1848–1849 Revolution
Revolution
personalities * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes * 6 External links ORGANISATIONAL HISTORYBACKGROUNDDuring the decade of the 1840s the word "communist" came into general use to describe those who hailed the left wing of the Jacobin Club of the French Revolution as their ideological forefathers
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Revolutions Of 1848
The REVOLUTIONS OF 1848, known in some countries as the SPRING OF NATIONS, PEOPLE\'S SPRING, SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES, or the YEAR OF REVOLUTION, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history . The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of removing the old feudal structures and creating independent national states. The revolutionary wave began in France in February , and immediately spread to most of Europe. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation between their respective revolutionaries. According to Evans and von Strandmann (2000), some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established governmental forces. The uprisings were led by shaky _ad hoc _ coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, and the introduction of parliamentary democracy in the Netherlands
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Class Struggle
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles. Additionally, political forms of class conflict exist; legally or illegally lobbying or bribing government leaders for passage of desirable partisan legislation including labor laws, tax codes, consumer laws, acts of congress or other sanction, injunction or tariff. The conflict can be direct, as with a lockout aimed at destroying a labor union , or indirect, as with an informal slowdown in production protesting low wages by workers or unfair labor practices by capital
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Capitalism
CAPITALISM is an economic system and ideology based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit . Characteristics central to capitalism include private property , capital accumulation , wage labor , voluntary exchange , a price system , and competitive markets . In a capitalist market economy , decision-making and investment are determined by the owners of the factors of production in financial and capital markets , and prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in the market. Economists , political economists , and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include _laissez-faire _ or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism , and state capitalism . Different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition, and state-sanctioned social policies . The degree of competition in markets, the role of intervention and regulation, and the scope of state ownership vary across different models of capitalism; the extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, are matters of politics and policy . Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies , which combine elements of free markets with state intervention, and in some cases economic planning
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, SOCIALISM, also called the SOCIALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism . The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning , while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution . The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management , so that the social surplus accrues to the working class and society as a whole. This view is consistent with, and helped to inform, early conceptions of socialism where the law of value no longer directs economic activity, and thus monetary relations in the form of exchange-value , profit , interest and wage labor would not operate and apply to Marxist socialism. The Marxian conception of socialism stands in contrast to other early conceptions of socialism, most notably early forms of market socialism based on classical economics such as mutualism and Ricardian socialism
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Communism
In political and social sciences , COMMUNISM (from Latin _communis_, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society , which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes , money , and the state . Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism , anarchism (anarchist communism ), and the political ideologies grouped around both. All these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism , that in this system, there are two major social classes: the working class —who must work to survive, and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class —a minority who derives profit from employing the working class, through private ownership of the means of production —and that conflict between these two classes will trigger a revolution. The revolution, in turn, will establish social ownership of the means of production, which is, according to this analysis, the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Criticism of communism can be roughly divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states , and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory
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Materialist Conception Of History
HISTORICAL MATERIALISM is a methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time. This was first articulated by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818–1883) as the MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY. It is principally a theory of history according to which the material conditions of a society's way of producing and reproducing the means of human existence or, in Marxist terms, the union of its productive capacity and social relations of production , fundamentally determine its organization and development. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, along with the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by Marxist writers. It now has many Marxist and non-Marxist variants
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Working Class
The WORKING CLASS (also LABOURING CLASS and PROLETARIAT ) are the people employed for wages , especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most service-work jobs. The working class only rely upon their earnings from wage labour , thereby, the category includes most of the working population of industrialized economies , of the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies , and of the rural workforce. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term _working class_ is often used interchangeably with the term _proletariat_, and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers ) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature). Since working-class wages can be very low, and because the state of unemployment is defined as a lack of independent means of generating an income and a lack of wage-labour employment, the term _working class_ also includes the _lumpenproletariat _, unemployed people who are extremely poor. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 History and growth * 3 Marxist definition * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links DEFINITIONSAs with many terms describing social class , _working class_ is defined and used in many different ways
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Proletariat
The PROLETARIAT (/ˌproʊlᵻˈtɛəri.ət/ from Latin _proletarius_) is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power (their ability to work). A member of such a class is a PROLETARIAN. CONTENTS * 1 Proletarii of the Roman Republic * 2 Marxist theory * 3 Prole drift * 4 See also * 5 Reference notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links PROLETARII OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Further information: Constitution of the Roman Republic The _proletarii_ constituted a social class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. The origin of the name is presumably linked with the census , which Roman authorities conducted every five years to produce a register of citizens and their property from which their military duties and voting privileges could be determined. For citizens with property valued 11,000 _asses _ or less, which was below the lowest census for military service, their children—_proles_ (from Latin
Latin
_prōlēs_, "offspring")—were listed instead of their property; hence, the name _proletarius_, "the one who produces offspring". The only contribution of a _proletarius_ to the Roman society was seen in his ability to raise children, the future Roman citizens who can colonize new territories conquered by the Roman Republic and later by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Means Of Production
In economics and sociology , the MEANS OF PRODUCTION are physical, non-human inputs used for the production of economic value, such as facilities, machinery, tools, infrastructural capital and natural capital . The means of production includes two broad categories of objects: instruments of labor (tools, factories, infrastructure , etc.) and subjects of labor (natural resources and raw materials ). If creating a good, people operate on the subjects of labor, using the instruments of labor, to create a product; or, stated another way, labour acting on the means of production creates a good. In an agrarian society the means of production is the soil and the shovel. In an industrial society it is the mines and the factories, and in a knowledge economy , the computers and networks. In a broad sense, the "means of production" also includes the "means of distribution" such as stores, the internet and railroads. The ownership of the social means of production is a key factor in categorizing different economic systems . In the terminology of classical economics , the means of production are the "factors of production " minus financial capital and minus human capital
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Bourgeoisie
The BOURGEOISIE (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: Part of a series on MARXISM Theoretical works * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 * Theses on Feuerbach * The German Ideology * The Communist Manifesto * The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon * Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie * A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy * Das Kapital * Dialectics of Nature Philosophy *
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word _feodum_ or _feudum_ (fief), then in use, the term _feudalism_ and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), _feudalism_ describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs . A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Bloch (1939), includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but also those of all three estates of the realm : the nobility, the clergy , and the peasantry bound by manorialism ; this is sometimes referred to as a "feudal society". Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown 's "The Tyranny of a Construct" (1974) and Susan Reynolds 's _Fiefs and Vassals_ (1994), there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society
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General Will
In political philosophy , the GENERAL WILL (French : volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole. The term was made famous by 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau . CONTENTS * 1 Basic ideas * 2 Criticisms * 3 Defense of Rousseau * 4 Quotations * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading BASIC IDEASThe phrase "general will," as Rousseau used it, occurs in Article Six of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (French: Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen), composed in 1789 during the French Revolution : The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to contribute personally, or through their representatives, to its formation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in its eyes, are equally admissible to all public dignities, positions, and employments, according to their capacities, and without any other distinction than that of their virtues and their talents. James Swenson writes: To my knowledge, the only time Rousseau actually uses the formulation "expression of the general will" is in a passage of the Discours sur l'économie politique, whose content renders it little susceptible of celebrity.. . . But it is indeed a faithful summary of his doctrine, faithful enough that commentators frequently adopt it without any hesitation
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