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The Communist Manifesto
_THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO_ (originally _MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY_) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels . Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London (in German as _Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei_) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the _Manifesto_ was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The _Communist Manifesto_ summarises Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles"
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Karl Marx
KARL MARX (/mɑːrks/ ; German: ; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Prussian-born philosopher , economist , political theorist , sociologist , journalist , and revolutionary socialist . Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy . As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England , where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet _ The Communist Manifesto _. His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history
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Friedrich Engels
FRIEDRICH ENGELS (English: /ˈɛŋɡəlz/ or /ˈɛŋəlz/ ; German: ; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher , social scientist , journalist , and businessman . He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. In 1845, he published _The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
_, based on personal observations and research in Manchester
Manchester
. In 1848, he co-authored _ The Communist Manifesto _ with Marx, though he also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works, and later he supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write _ Das Kapital
Das Kapital
_. After Marx's death, Engels edited the second and third volumes
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Communist League
The COMMUNIST LEAGUE (German : Bund der Kommunisten) was an international political party established in June 1847 in London
London
, England
England
. The organisation was formed through the merger of the League of the Just , headed by Karl Schapper and the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels
Brussels
, Belgium
Belgium
, in which Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels were the dominant personalities. The Communist League
Communist League
is regarded as the first Marxist political party and it was on behalf of this group that Marx and Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto
Communist Manifesto
late in 1847. The Communist League
Communist League
was formally disbanded in 1852, following the Cologne Communist Trial
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Revolutions Of 1848
The REVOLUTIONS OF 1848, known in some countries as the SPRING OF NATIONS, PEOPLE\'S SPRING, SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES, or the YEAR OF REVOLUTION, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history . The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of removing the old feudal structures and creating independent national states. The revolutionary wave began in France in February , and immediately spread to most of Europe. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation between their respective revolutionaries
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Class Struggle
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Capitalism
CAPITALISM is an economic system and ideology based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit . Characteristics central to capitalism include private property , capital accumulation , wage labor , voluntary exchange , a price system , and competitive markets . In a capitalist market economy , decision-making and investment are determined by the owners of the factors of production in financial and capital markets , and prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in the market. Economists , political economists , and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include _laissez-faire _ or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism , and state capitalism
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, SOCIALISM, also called the SOCIALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism . The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning , while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution . The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management , so that the social surplus accrues to the working class and society as a whole
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Communism
In political and social sciences , COMMUNISM (from Latin _communis_, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society , which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes , money , and the state . Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism , anarchism (anarchist communism ), and the political ideologies grouped around both
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Materialist Conception Of History
HISTORICAL MATERIALISM is a methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time. This was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY. It is principally a theory of history according to which the material conditions of a society's way of producing and reproducing the means of human existence or, in Marxist terms, the union of its productive capacity and social relations of production , fundamentally determine its organization and development. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, along with the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by Marxist writers
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Working Class
The WORKING CLASS (also LABOURING CLASS and PROLETARIAT ) are the people employed for wages , especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most service-work jobs. The working class only rely upon their earnings from wage labour , thereby, the category includes most of the working population of industrialized economies , of the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies , and of the rural workforce. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term _working class_ is often used interchangeably with the term _proletariat_, and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers ) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature)
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Proletariat
The PROLETARIAT (/ˌproʊlᵻˈtɛəri.ət/ from Latin _proletarius_) is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power (their ability to work). A member of such a class is a PROLETARIAN. CONTENTS * 1 Proletarii of the Roman Republic * 2 Marxist theory * 3 Prole drift * 4 See also * 5 Reference notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links PROLETARII OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Further information: Constitution of the Roman Republic The _proletarii_ constituted a social class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. The origin of the name is presumably linked with the census , which Roman authorities conducted every five years to produce a register of citizens and their property from which their military duties and voting privileges could be determined
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Means Of Production
In economics and sociology , the MEANS OF PRODUCTION are physical, non-human inputs used for the production of economic value, such as facilities, machinery, tools, infrastructural capital and natural capital . The means of production includes two broad categories of objects: instruments of labor (tools, factories, infrastructure , etc.) and subjects of labor (natural resources and raw materials ). If creating a good, people operate on the subjects of labor, using the instruments of labor, to create a product; or, stated another way, labour acting on the means of production creates a good. In an agrarian society the means of production is the soil and the shovel. In an industrial society it is the mines and the factories, and in a knowledge economy , the computers and networks. In a broad sense, the "means of production" also includes the "means of distribution" such as stores, the internet and railroads
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Bourgeoisie
The BOURGEOISIE (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: Part of a series on MARXISM Theoretical works * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 * Theses on Feuerbach * The German Ideology * The Communist Manifesto * The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon * Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökon
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word _feodum_ or _feudum_ (fief), then in use, the term _feudalism_ and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), _feudalism_ describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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General Will
In political philosophy , the GENERAL WILL (French : volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole. The term was made famous by 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau . CONTENTS * 1 Basic ideas * 2 Criticisms * 3 Defense of Rousseau * 4 Quotations * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading BASIC IDEASThe phrase "general will," as Rousseau used it, occurs in Article Six of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (French: Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen), composed in 1789 during the French Revolution : The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to contribute personally, or through their representatives, to its formation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes
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