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The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League
Communist League
and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents
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Louis Philippe
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
(6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King
King
of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist
Orléanist
party. As a member of the cadet branch of the Royal House of France
France
and a cousin of King
King
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France
by reason of his descent from their common ancestors Louis XIII
Louis XIII
and Louis XIV, he had earlier found it necessary to flee France
France
during the period of the French Revolution
French Revolution
in order to avoid imprisonment and execution, a fate that actually befell his father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. He spent 21 years in exile after he left France
France
in 1793
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General Will
In political philosophy, the general will (French: volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole. The term was made famous by 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.Contents1 Basic ideas 2 Criticisms 3 Defense of Rousseau 4 Quotations 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further readingBasic ideas[edit] The phrase "general will," as Rousseau used it, occurs in Article Six of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
(French: Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen), composed in 1789 during the French Revolution:The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to contribute personally, or through their representatives, to its formation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes
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Political Economy
Political economy
Political economy
is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth. Political economy
Political economy
as a discipline originated in moral philosophy in the 18th century and sought to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie" or "household management"
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Francis Wheen
Francis James Baird Wheen (born 22 January 1957) is a British journalist, writer and broadcaster.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career2.1 Broadcasting work3 Political views 4 Personal life 5 Partial bibliography 6 References 7 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Wheen was born into an army family[1] and educated at two independent schools: Copthorne Preparatory School near Crawley, West Sussex, and Harrow School in north west London. Career[edit]External video Booknotes interview with Wheen on Karl Marx: A Life, 25 June 2000, C-SPANRunning away from Harrow at 16 "to join the alternative society," Wheen had early periods as a "dogsbody" at The Guardian and the New Statesman and attended Royal Holloway College, University of London, after a period at a crammer.[1] At Harrow, he was briefly a contemporary of Mark Thatcher[2] who has been a subject of his journalism.[3] Wheen is the author of several books, including a
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Harold Laski
Harold Joseph Laski (30 June 1893 – 24 March 1950) was a British political theorist, economist, author, and lecturer. He was active in politics and served as the chairman of the British Labour Party during 1945–1946, and was a professor at the London School of Economics from 1926 to 1950. He first promoted pluralism, emphasising the importance of local voluntary communities such as labour unions. After 1930, he shifted to a Marxist emphasis on class conflict and the need for a workers' revolution, which he hinted might be violent.[1] Laski's position angered Labour leaders who promised a nonviolent democratic transformation
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Soho
SoHo, sometimes written Soho,[2] is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, which in recent history came to the public's attention for being the location of many artists' lofts and art galleries, but is now better known for its variety of shops ranging from trendy upscale boutiques to national and international chain store outlets. The area's history is an archetypal example of inner-city regeneration and gentrification, encompassing socioeconomic, cultural, political, and architectural developments.[3] The name "SoHo" refers to the area being "South of Houston Street", and was also a reference to Soho, an area in London's West End.[4] It was coined by Chester Rapkin,[5] an urban planner and author of The South Houston Industrial Area study,[6] also known as the "Rapkin Report"
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Ostend
Ostend (Dutch: Oostende [oːstˈɛndə]; French: Ostende [ɔstɑ̃d]; German: Ostende [ʔɔstˈʔɛndə])[2] is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke, Raversijde, Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend
Ostend
proper – the largest on the Belgian coast.Contents1 History1.1 Origin to Middle Ages 1.2 Fifteenth to eighteenth century 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century2 Sights 3 Museums 4 Climate 5 Transport 6 Gallery 7 Notable residents 8 Sport clubs 9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksHistory[edit] Origin to Middle Ages[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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City Of London
The City of London
London
is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders.[3][4] The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough, a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster)
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Moses Hess
Moses (Moshe) Hess (January or June 21, 1812 – April 6, 1875) was a French-Jewish philosopher and a founder of Labor Zionism
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The Mountain (1849)
The Mountain (French: La Montagne), with its members collectively called Democratic Socialists (French: Démocrate-socialistes), was a political group of the Second French Republic. It drew its name from The Mountain, a group active in the early period of the French Revolution. Standing on a republican platform, its main opposition was the conservative Party of Order (Parti de l'Ordre). The Mountain achieved 25% of the vote, compared to 53% for the Party of Order. It was led by Ledru-Rollin, one of the members of the Second Republic's early provisional government.Contents1 History 2 Ideology 3 Notable members 4 Electoral results 5 ReferencesHistory[edit]Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, who led The Mountain of 1849.After 1849, the Barrot Party of Order-backed government sought to repress protests against alcohol excises and the '45 centime', as well as demand for cheap credit and other grievances
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Reformism
Reformism
Reformism
is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.[1] Within the socialist movement, reformism is the view that gradual changes through existing institutions can eventually lead to fundamental changes in a society’s political and economic systems. Reformism
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Helen Macfarlane
Helen Macfarlane, born Barrhead, 25 September 1818 (registered in the Abbey [i.e. landward] Parish of Paisley), Renfrewshire, Scotland, died Nantwich, Cheshire, England 29 March 1860, was a Scottish Chartist feminist journalist and philosopher, known for her 1850 translation into English of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which was published in German in 1848. Between April 1850 and December 1850, Macfarlane wrote three essays for George Julian Harney's monthly, the Democratic Review and ten articles for his weekly paper, the Red Republican (which changed its name to the Friend of the People in December 1850). In 1851 Macfarlane "disappeared" from the political scene
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Public Education
State schools (also known as public schools outside England
England
and Wales[note 1]) are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. These schools are generally inclusive (non-selective) in admitting all students within the geographical area that they serve. While state schools are to be found in virtually every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education (kindergarten to twelfth grade, or equivalent), as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities, colleges, and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than private entities. The education system, or lack thereof, prior to the establishment of government-funded schools impacts their role in each society
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Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
is one of the 25 wards of the City of London
City of London
and also the name of a major road (part of the A10) between Gracechurch Street
Gracechurch Street
and Norton Folgate
Norton Folgate
in the northeast corner of London's main financial district.[2] Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
is named after one of the original eight gates in the London
London
Wall
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Progressive Income Tax
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.[1][2][3][4][5] The term "progressive" refers to the way the tax rate progresses from low to high, with the result that a taxpayer's average tax rate is less than the person's marginal tax rate.[6][7] The term can be applied to individual taxes or to a tax system as a whole; a year, multi-year, or lifetime. Progressive taxes are imposed in an attempt to reduce the tax incidence of people with a lower ability to pay, as such taxes shift the incidence increasingly to those with a higher ability-to-pay. The opposite of a progressive tax is a regressive tax, where the relative tax rate or burden decreases as an individual's ability to pay increases.[5] The term is frequently applied in reference to personal income taxes, in which people with lower income pay a lower percentage of that income in tax than do those with higher income
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