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Thallium
THALLIUM is a chemical element with symbol TL and atomic number 81. This soft gray post-transition metal is not found free in nature. When isolated, thallium resembles tin , but discolors when exposed to air. Chemists William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy discovered thallium independently in 1861, in residues of sulfuric acid production. Both used the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy , in which thallium produces a notable green spectral line. Thallium, from Greek θαλλός, thallós, meaning "a green shoot or twig," was named by Crookes. It was isolated by both Lamy and Crookes in 1862; Lamy by electrolysis and Crookes by precipitation and melting of the resultant powder. Crookes exhibited it as a powder precipitated by zinc at the International exhibition which opened on 1 May, that year. Thallium tends to oxidize to the +3 and +1 oxidation states as ionic salts
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Germanium
GERMANIUM is a chemical element with symbol GE and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group , chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon . Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth\'s crust . In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev
predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table , and called the element EKASILICON . Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler
Clemens Winkler
found the new element along with silver and sulfur , in a rare mineral called argyrodite
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Arsenic
ARSENIC is a chemical element with symbol AS and atomic number 33. Arsenic
Arsenic
occurs in many minerals , usually in combination with sulfur and metals , but also as a pure elemental crystal . Arsenic
Arsenic
is a metalloid . It has various allotropes , but only the gray form is important to industry. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition ). Arsenic
Arsenic
is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon . Arsenic
Arsenic
and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides , treated wood products, herbicides , and insecticides . These applications are declining, however. A few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites
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Selenium
SELENIUM is a chemical element with symbol SE and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table , sulfur and tellurium . It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. Selenium
Selenium
(Greek σελήνη selene meaning "Moon") was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius , who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously discovered tellurium (named for the Earth). Selenium
Selenium
is found in metal sulfide ores , where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, selenium is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production. Minerals that are pure selenide or selenate compounds are known but rare
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Krypton
KRYPTON (from Greek : κρυπτός kryptos "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol KR and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas , krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps . With rare exceptions, krypton is chemically inert . Krypton, like the other noble gases , is used in lighting and photography . Krypton
Krypton
light has many spectral lines , and krypton plasma is useful in bright, high-powered gas lasers (krypton ion and excimer lasers ), each of which resonates and amplifies a single spectral line. Krypton
Krypton
fluoride also makes a useful laser. From 1960 to 1983, the official length of a meter was defined by the 605 nm wavelength of the orange spectral line of krypton-86, because of the high power and relative ease of operation of krypton discharge tubes
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Zinc
ZINC is a chemical element with symbol ZN and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table . In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium : both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc
Zinc
is the 24th most abundant element in Earth\'s crust and has five stable isotopes . The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc
Zinc
is refined by froth flotation of the ore , roasting , and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning )
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Chromium
CHROMIUM is a chemical element with symbol CR and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6 . It is a steely-grey, lustrous , hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing , and has a high melting point. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color , because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium . Chromium
Chromium
metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness
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Iron
IRON is a chemical element with symbol FE (from Latin : ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series . It is by mass the most common element on Earth
Earth
, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core . It is the fourth most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars , where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova , which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements , ruthenium and osmium , iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states , −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water
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Cobalt
COBALT is a chemical element with symbol CO and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron . The free element, produced by reductive smelting , is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal . Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue ) have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth . Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals ; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic -containing fumes upon smelting. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal (the first discovered since ancient times), and this was ultimately named for the kobold
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Nickel
NICKEL is a chemical element with symbol NI and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile . Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area , shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation ). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks , and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron , a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis . An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core
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Rubidium
RUBIDIUM is a chemical element with symbol RB and atomic number 37. Rubidium
Rubidium
is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other alkali metals, including rapid oxidation in air . On Earth, natural rubidium comprises two isotopes : 72% is the stable isotope, 85Rb; 28% is the slightly radioactive 87Rb, with a half-life of 49 billion years—more than three times longer than the estimated age of the universe . German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed technique, flame spectroscopy . Rubidium's compounds have various chemical and electronic applications. Rubidium
Rubidium
metal is easily vaporized and has a convenient spectral absorption range, making it a frequent target for laser manipulation of atoms
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Strontium
STRONTIUM is the chemical element with symbol SR and atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal , strontium is a soft silver-white yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically . The metal forms a dark oxide layer when it is exposed to air. Strontium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two vertical neighbors in the periodic table, calcium and barium . It occurs naturally in the minerals celestine , strontianite , and putnisite , and is mined mostly from the first two of these. While natural strontium is stable, the synthetic 90Sr isotope is radioactive and is one of the most dangerous components of nuclear fallout , as strontium is absorbed by the body in a similar manner to calcium. Natural stable strontium, on the other hand, is not hazardous to health
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Rhodium
RHODIUM is a chemical element with symbol RH and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, and chemically inert transition metal . It is a member of the platinum group . It has only one naturally occurring isotope , 103Rh. Naturally occurring rhodium is usually found as the free metal, alloyed with similar metals, and rarely as a chemical compound in minerals such as bowieite and rhodplumsite . It is one of the rarest and most valuable precious metals . Rhodium
Rhodium
is a noble metal , resistant to corrosion , found in platinum or nickel ores together with the other members of the platinum group metals. It was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston in one such ore, and named for the rose color of one of its chlorine compounds, produced after it reacted with the powerful acid mixture aqua regia
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Palladium
PALLADIUM is a chemical element with symbol PD and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston . He named it after the asteroid Pallas , which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena
Athena
, acquired by her when she slew Pallas . Palladium, platinum , rhodium , ruthenium , iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). These have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them. More than half the supply of palladium and its congener platinum is used in catalytic converters , which convert as much as 90% of the harmful gases in automobile exhaust (hydrocarbons , carbon monoxide , and nitrogen dioxide ) into less noxious substances (nitrogen , carbon dioxide and water vapor )
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Silver
SILVER is a chemical element with symbol AG (from the Latin
Latin
argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal , it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity , thermal conductivity , and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite . Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper , gold, lead , and zinc refining . Silver
Silver
has long been valued as a precious metal . Silver
Silver
metal is used in many bullion coins , sometimes alongside gold : while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal . Its purity is typically measured on a per-mille basis; a 94%-pure alloy is described as "0.940 fine"
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