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Terrestrial Animal
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts). Terrestrial invertebrates include ants, flies, crickets, grasshoppers and spiders.Contents1 Terrestrial Classes 2 Taxonomy2.1 Difficulties3 Terrestrialization 4 Terrestrial gastropods 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 ReferencesTerrestrial Classes[edit] The term terrestrial is typically applied for species that live primarily on the ground, in contrast to arboreal species, which live primarily in trees. There are other less common terms that apply to specific groups of terrestrial animals:Saxicolous are rock dwelling creatures
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Vertebrate Land Invasion
The aquatic to terrestrial transition of vertebrate organisms occurred in the late Devonian
Devonian
era and was an important step in the evolutionary history of modern land vertebrates. The transition allowed animals to escape competitive pressure from the water and explore niche opportunities on land. Fossils from this period have allowed scientists to identify some of the species that existed during this transition, such as Tiktaalik[1] and Acanthostega.[2] Many of these species were also the first to develop adaptations suited to terrestrial over aquatic life, such as neck mobility and hindlimb locomotion. The late Devonian
Devonian
vertebrate transition was not the only terrestrial invasion in evolutionary history. The vertebrate transition was preceded by the plant and invertebrate terrestrial invasion. These invasions allowed for the appropriate niche development that would ultimately facilitate the vertebrate invasion
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Centipede
Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes Millipedes and other multi-legged creatures. Centipedes are elongated metameric creatures with one pair of legs per body segment. Centipedes are known to be highly venomous, and often inject paralyzing venom. Despite the name, centipedes can have a varying number of legs, ranging from 30 to 354. Centipedes always have an odd number of pairs of legs.[1][2][3] Therefore, no centipede has exactly 100 legs. A key trait uniting this group is a pair of venom claws or forcipules formed from a modified first appendage. Centipedes are predominantly carnivorous.[4]:168 Their size can range from a few millimetres in the smaller lithobiomorphs and geophilomorphs to about 30 cm (12 in) in the largest scolopendromorphs. Centipedes can be found in a wide variety of environments
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Rotifer
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals. They were first described by Rev. John Harris in 1696, and other forms were described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
in 1703.[1] Most rotifers are around 0.1–0.5 mm long (although their size can range from 50 μm to over 2 mm),[2] and are common in freshwater environments throughout the world with a few saltwater species; for example, those of genus Synchaeta. Some rotifers are free swimming and truly planktonic, others move by inchworming along a substrate, and some are sessile, living inside tubes or gelatinous holdfasts that are attached to a substrate. About 25 species are colonial (e.g., Sinantherina semibullata), either sessile or planktonic
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Tardigrada
Tardigrades (/ˈtɑːrdɪˌɡreɪd/; also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets)[2][3][4][5] are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.[2][6] They were first discovered by the German zoologist Johann August Ephraim Goeze
Johann August Ephraim Goeze
in 1773. The name Tardigrada (meaning "slow stepper") was given three years later by the Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani.[7] They have been found everywhere: from mountain tops to the deep sea and mud volcanoes;[8] from tropical rain forests to the Antarctic.[9] Tardigrades are one of the most resilient known animals,[10][11] with individual species able to survive extreme conditions that would be rapidly fatal to nearly all other known life forms, such as exposure to extreme temperatures, extreme pressures (both high and low), air deprivation, radiation, dehydration, and starvation
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Velvet Worms
Order: EuonychophoraFamily: Peripatidae Family: PeripatopsidaeOrder: †OntonychophoraFamily: †HelenodoridaeSuperfamily: †TertiapatoideaFamily: †Tertiapatidae Family: †SuccinipatopsidaeGlobal range of Onychophora: extant Peripatidae
Peripatidae
in green, Peripatopsidae
Peripatopsidae
in red, and fossils in black (click to enlarge) Onychophora
Onychophora
(from Ancient Greek, onyches, "claws"; and pherein, "to carry"), commonly known as velvet worms (due to their velvety texture and somewhat wormlike appearance) or more ambiguously as peripatus (after the first described genus, Peripatus), is a phylum of elongate, soft-bodied, many-legged panarthropods.[1][2] In appearance they have variously been compared to worms with legs, caterpillars, and slugs.[3] They prey upon smaller animals such as insects, which they catch by squirting an adhesive slime
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Mollusks
See text.Diversity[1]85,000 recognized living species. Cornu aspersum
Cornu aspersum
(formerly Helix aspersa) – a common land snail Mollusca
Mollusca
is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusks[Note 1] (/ˈmɒləsk/). Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized.[2] The number of fossil species is estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 additional species.[3] Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is typically divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes, of which two are entirely extinct
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Land Snail
A land snail is any of the numerous species of snail that live on land, as opposed to sea snails and freshwater snails. Land snail
Land snail
is the common name for terrestrial gastropod mollusks that have shells (those without shells are known as slugs). However, it is not always easy to say which species are terrestrial, because some are more or less amphibious between land and freshwater, and others are relatively amphibious between land and saltwater. The majority of land snails are pulmonates. That is, they have a lung and breathe air. A minority however belong to much more ancient lineages where their anatomy includes a gill and an operculum. Many of these operculate land snails live in habitats or microhabitats that are sometimes (or often) damp or wet, such as for example in moss. Land snails have a strong muscular foot; they use mucus to enable them to crawl over rough surfaces and in order to keep their soft bodies from drying out
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Slug
Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc. The word slug is also often used as part of the common name of any gastropod mollusc that has no shell, a very reduced shell, or only a small internal shell, particularly sea slugs and semislugs (this is in contrast to the common name snail, which applies to gastropods that have a coiled shell large enough that the animal can fully retract its soft parts into the shell). Various taxonomic families of land slugs form part of several quite different evolutionary lineages, which also include snails. Thus, the various families of slugs are not closely related, despite a superficial similarity in the overall body form
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Annelida
Class Polychaeta
Polychaeta
(paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata
Clitellata
(see below)     Oligochaeta
Oligochaeta
– earthworms, etc.    Branchiobdellida     Hirudinea
Hirudinea
– leeches Class Echiura
Echiura
(previously a separate phylum) Class Machaeridia†The annelids (Annelida, from Latin
Latin
anellus, "little ring"),[2][a] also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches. The species exist in and have adapted to various ecologies – some in marine environments as distinct as tidal zones and hydrothermal vents, others in fresh water, and yet others in moist terrestrial environments. The annelids are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate, invertebrate organisms
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Chordata
And see textA chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system. In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata, which includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; the Tunicata, which includes salps and sea squirts; and the Cephalochordata, which include the lancelets. There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Millipede
Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature. Each double-legged segment is a result of two single segments fused together. Most millipedes have very elongated cylindrical or flattened bodies with more than 20 segments, while pill millipedes are shorter and can roll into a ball. Although the name "millipede" derives from the Latin
Latin
for "thousand feet", no known species has 1,000; the record of 750 legs belongs to Illacme
Illacme
plenipes. There are approximately 12,000 named species classified into 16 orders and around 140 families, making Diplopoda the largest class of myriapods, an arthropod group which also includes centipedes and other multi-legged creatures. Most millipedes are slow-moving detritivores, eating decaying leaves and other dead plant matter
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Nemertea
See text.Synonyms [1]Nemertini Nemertinea Rhyncocoela Nemertea
Nemertea
is a phylum of invertebrate animals also known as "ribbon worms" or "proboscis worms".[2] Alternative names for the phylum have included Nemertini, Nemertinea and Rhynchocoela.[1] Although most are less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, one specimen has been estimated at 54 metres (177 ft). Most are very slim, usually only a few millimeters wide, although a few have relatively short but wide bodies. Many have patterns of yellow, orange, red and green coloration. The foregut, stomach and intestine run a little below the midline of the body, the anus is at the tip of the tail, and the mouth is under the front. A little above the gut is the rhynchocoel, a cavity which mostly runs above the midline and ends a little short of the rear of the body
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Penguins
Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see SystematicsRange of penguins, all species (aqua)Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds. They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with only one species, the Galapagos penguin, found north of the equator. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have evolved into flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sea life caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans. Although almost all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica
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Pinniped
Pinnipeds,[a] commonly known as seals,[b] are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. They comprise the extant families Odobenidae
Odobenidae
(whose only living member is the walrus), Otariidae
Otariidae
(the eared seals: sea lions and fur seals), and Phocidae
Phocidae
(the earless seals, or true seals). There are 33 extant species of pinnipeds, and more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils
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Walruses
O. rosmarus rosmarus O. rosmarus divergens O. rosmarus laptevi (debated)Distribution of walrus Walrus
Walrus
cows and yearlings (short tusks), photo courtesy USFWSThe walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole
North Pole
in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae
Odobenidae
and genus Odobenus. This species is subdivided into three subspecies:[2] the Atlantic walrus (O. r. rosmarus) which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) which lives in the Pacific Ocean, and O. r. laptevi, which lives in the Laptev Sea
Laptev Sea
of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Adult walrus are easily recognized by their prominent tusks, whiskers, and bulk
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