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Temperateness (virology)
In VIROLOGY , TEMPERATE refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ ) to display a lysogenic life cycle . Many (but not all) temperate phages can integrate their genomes into their host bacterium\'s chromosome, together becoming a lysogen as the phage genome becomes a prophage . A temperate phage is also able to undergo a productive, typically lytic life cycle, where the prophage is expressed, replicates the phage genome, and produces phage progeny, which then leave the bacterium . With phage the term virulent is often used as an antonym to temperate, but more strictly a virulent phage is one that has lost its ability to display lysogeny through mutation rather than a phage lineage with no genetic potential to ever display lysogeny (which more properly would be described as an obligately lytic phage). NOTES * ^ Barksdale, L., and S. B. Ardon. 1974. Persisting bacteriophage infections, lysogeny, and phage conversions. Annu. Rev
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Prophage
A PROPHAGE is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid . This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell . Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. CONTENTS * 1 Prophage
Prophage
induction * 2 Zygotic induction * 3 References * 4 See also PROPHAGE INDUCTIONUpon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the Lytic Cycle
Lytic Cycle
. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery
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Virulence
VIRULENCE can have two different meanings depending on the context. In the context of gene for gene systems, often in plants, virulence refers to a pathogen's ability to infect a resistant host. In most other contexts, especially in animal systems, virulence refers to the degree of damage caused by a microbe to its host . The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors . The noun virulence derives from the adjective virulent. Virulent can describe either disease severity or a pathogen's infectivity. The word virulent derives from the Latin word virulentus, meaning "a poisoned wound" or "full of poison." In an ecological context, virulence can be defined as the host's parasite-induced loss of fitness
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Virus
I: ds DNA
DNA
viruses II: ss DNA
DNA
viruses III: ds RNA
RNA
viruses IV: (+)ss RNA
RNA
viruses V: (−)ss RNA
RNA
viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A VIRUS is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Virology
VIROLOGY is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology
Virology
is considered to be a subfield of microbiology or of medicine
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Lysogen
A LYSOGEN or LYSOGENIC BACTERIUM is a bacterial cell in which a phage exists as DNA in its dormant state (prophage ). A prophage is either integrated into the host bacteria 's chromosome or more rarely exists as a stable plasmid within the host cell. The prophage expresses gene(s) that repress the phage's lytic action, until this repression is disrupted (see lytic cycle ). Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which include phage-encoded tRNA and virulence genes
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica
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Genome
In modern molecular biology and genetics , a GENOME is the GENETIC MATERIAL of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA
RNA
viruses ). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions ), the noncoding DNA
DNA
and the genetic material of the mitochondria and chloroplasts
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Lambda Phage
ENTEROBACTERIA PHAGE λ (LAMBDA PHAGE , COLIPHAGE λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage , that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
(E. coli). It was discovered by Esther Lederberg
Esther Lederberg
in 1950 when she noticed that streaks of mixtures of two E. coli strains, one of which treated with ultraviolet light, was "nibbled and plaqued ". The wild type of this virus has a temperate lifecycle that allows it to either reside within the genome of its host through lysogeny or enter into a lytic phase (during which it kills and lyses the cell to produce offspring); mutant strains are unable to lysogenize cells- instead they grow and enter the lytic cycle after superinfecting an already lysogenized cell. The phage particle consists of a head (also known as a capsid ), a tail, and tail fibers (see image of virus below)
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Bacteriophages
A BACTERIOPHAGE /ˈbækˈtɪər.i.oʊˌfeɪdʒ/ , also known informally as a PHAGE /ˈfeɪdʒ/ , is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium . The term is derived from "bacteria" and the Greek : φαγεῖν (phagein), "to devour". Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes . Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm . Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere . Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It’s estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. Phages are widely distributed in locations populated by bacterial hosts, such as soil or the intestines of animals
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Lysogenic Life Cycle
LYSOGENY, or the LYSOGENIC CYCLE, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this condition the bacterium continues to live and reproduce normally. The genetic material of the bacteriophage, called a prophage , can be transmitted to daughter cells at each subsequent cell division, and at later events (such as UV radiation or the presence of certain chemicals) can release it, causing proliferation of new phages via the lytic cycle. Lysogenic cycles can also occur in eukaryotes , although the method of DNA incorporation is not fully understood
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Lytic
The LYTIC CYCLE (/ˈlɪtᵻk/ LIT-ək ), is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction , the other being the lysogenic cycle . The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates using the host DNA machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a free floating separate molecule to the host DNA. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Penetrating * 1.2 Gene regulation biochemistry * 1.3 Maturation and lysis * 1.3.1 Lytic cycle without lysis * 2 References DESCRIPTIONViruses that only use lytic cycle are called virulent viruses (in contrast to temperate viruses)
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Temperateness (virology)
In VIROLOGY , TEMPERATE refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ ) to display a lysogenic life cycle . Many (but not all) temperate phages can integrate their genomes into their host bacterium\'s chromosome, together becoming a lysogen as the phage genome becomes a prophage . A temperate phage is also able to undergo a productive, typically lytic life cycle, where the prophage is expressed, replicates the phage genome, and produces phage progeny, which then leave the bacterium . With phage the term virulent is often used as an antonym to temperate, but more strictly a virulent phage is one that has lost its ability to display lysogeny through mutation rather than a phage lineage with no genetic potential to ever display lysogeny (which more properly would be described as an obligately lytic phage). NOTES * ^ Barksdale, L., and S. B. Ardon. 1974. Persisting bacteriophage infections, lysogeny, and phage conversions. Annu. Rev
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