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Telugu Language
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Telangana
Telangana
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Odisha
ODISHA ( /əˈdɪsə/ ( listen ); formerly ORISSA, /ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, oʊ-/ ) is one of the 29 states of India
India
, located in eastern India. It is surrounded by the states of West Bengal
West Bengal
to the north-east, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
to the south. Odisha
Odisha
has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam . It is the 9th largest state by area , and the 11th largest by population . It is also the 3rd most populous state of India
India
in terms of tribal population
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Ethnologue
ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD is a commercial publication about the living languages of the world, first issued in 1951. As of 2017, it contains web-based information about 7,099 languages in its 20th edition, including the number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliations, autonym , availability of the Bible
Bible
in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, and an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS)
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Maharashtra
MAHARASHTRA (/mɑːhəˈrɑːʃtrə/ ; Marathi: ( listen ), abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India
India
and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area . Spread over 307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi), it is bordered by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west and the Indian states of Karnataka
Karnataka
, Telangana
Telangana
, Goa
Goa
, Gujarat
Gujarat
, Chhattisgarh , Madhya Pradesh and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
. It is also the world\'s second-most populous subnational entity . It has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai
Mumbai
, has a population of approximately 18 million. Nagpur is Maharashtra's second capital as well as its winter capital
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Primary Language
A FIRST LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGE or MOTHER TONGUE (also known as FATHER TONGUE, ARTERIAL LANGUAGE or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period . In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual . By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Mother tongue * 2 Significance * 3 Multilingualism
Multilingualism
* 3.1 Defining native language * 3.2 Defining "native speaker" * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary
Qualla Boundary
in North Carolina
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Trilinga Kshetras
Saiddhantika * Siddhantism Non - Saiddhantika * Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
* Pratyabhijna
Pratyabhijna
* Vama * Dakshina *
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George Abraham Grierson
SIR GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON OM KCIE (7 January 1851 – 9 March 1941) was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India . He worked in the Indian Civil Services but an interest in philology and linguistics led him to pursue studies in the languages and folklore of India during his postings in Bengal and Bihar. He published numerous studies in the journals of learned societies and wrote several books during his administrative career but proposed a formal linguistic survey at the Oriental Congress in 1886 at Vienna. The Congress recommended the idea to the British Government and he was appointed superintendent of the newly created Linguistic Survey of India in 1898
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Neolithic
farming , animal husbandry pottery , metallurgy , wheel circular ditches , henges , megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD, or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology , beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology , in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
period and commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the " Neolithic Revolution "
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Mahabharata
The MAHāBHāRATA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced ) is one of the two major Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics of ancient India
India
, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa . The Mahābhārata is an epic narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. It also contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or puruṣārtha (12.161). Among the principal works and stories in the Mahābhārata are the Bhagavad Gita , the story of Damayanti , an abbreviated version of the Rāmāyaṇa, and the story of Ṛṣyasringa , often considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa . There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers
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Godavari River
The GODAVARI is the second longest river in India
India
after the river Ganges
Ganges
having its source at Triambakeshwar, Maharashtra. It starts in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and flows east for 1,465 kilometres (910 mi) emptying into Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
draining the Indian states Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(48.6%), Telangana
Telangana
(18.8%), Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
(4.5%), Chhattisgarh (10.9%), Madhya Pradesh (10.0%), Odisha
Odisha
(5.7%), Karnataka
Karnataka
(1.4%) and Puducherry (Yanam ) through its extensive network of tributaries
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Linguistic Reconstruction
LINGUISTIC RECONSTRUCTION is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages. There are two kinds of reconstruction: * INTERNAL RECONSTRUCTION uses irregularities in a single language to make inferences about an earlier stage of that language – that is, it is based on evidence from that language alone. * COMPARATIVE RECONSTRUCTION , usually referred to just as RECONSTRUCTION, establishes features of the ancestor of two or more related languages, belonging to the same language family , by means of the comparative method
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Bhadriraju Krishnamurti
BHADRIRAJU KRISHNAMURTI (19 June 1928 – 11 August 2012) was an Indian Dravidianist and linguist. He was born in Ongole (Andhra Pradesh ). He was Vice Chancellor of Hyderabad Central University from 1986 to 1993 and founded the Department of Linguistics at Osmania University where he served as professor from 1962 to 1986. His magnum opus The Dravidian Languages is considered a landmark volume in the study of Dravidian linguistics. Krishnamurti was a student and close associate of Murray Barnson Emeneau . He got his A.M. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania in 1955 and 1957 respectively. His grandson Ravi Bhadriraju was the rhythm guitarist in death metal band Job for a Cowboy
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Proto-language
A PROTO-LANGUAGE in the tree model of historical linguistics is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested , from which a number of attested, or documented, known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, or slow modification of the proto-language into languages that form a language family . In the strict sense, a proto-language is the latest common ancestor of a language family, immediately before the start of the family's divergence into the attested daughter languages . It is therefore equivalent with the ancestral language or parental language of a language family. Moreover, a group of idioms (such as a dialect cluster ) which are not considered separate languages (for whichever reasons) can also be described as descending from a unitary proto-language. Occasionally, the German term Ursprache (from Ur- "primordial" and Sprache "language", pronounced ) is used instead. CONTENTS * 1 Definition and verification * 2 Proto-X vs
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
, may be used
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