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Telugu Language
India in the following states and union territories : * Andhra Pradesh * Telangana * Yanam ( Puducherry ) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 te ISO 639-2 tel ISO 639-3 tel GLOTTOLOG telu1262 Telugu oldt1249 Old Telugu LINGUASPHERE 49-DBA-aa Telugu is native to Andhra Pradesh , Telangana , Yanam (Puducherry ) THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .TELUGU (English: /ˈtɛlᵿɡuː/ ; _telugu_ ) is a Dravidian language native to India . It stands alongside Hindi , English , and Bengali as one of the few languages with official status in more than one Indian state ; Telugu is the primary language in the states of Andhra Pradesh , Telangana , and in the town of Yanam , Puducherry , and is also spoken by significant minorities in Karnataka (8.03%), Tamil Nadu (8.63%), Maharashtra (1.4%), Chhattisgarh (1%), Odisha (1.9%), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (12.9%), and by the Sri Lankan Gypsy people
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste , emerged in the first millennium BCE, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires ; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia
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Andhra Pradesh
^† The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 states that Hyderabad is joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. A new capital is planned to be developed between Guntur and Vijaywada . Symbols of Andhra Pradesh EMBLEM Poorna kumbham LANGUAGE Telugu SONG Maa Telugu Talliki DANCE Kuchipudi ANIMAL Blackbuck BIRD Indian roller FLOWER Blue-Water Lilly FRUIT Mango TREE Neem RIVER Godavari , Krishna , Penna and Tungabhadra SPORT Kabaddi ANDHRA PRADESH (/ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/ ) ( pronunciation (help ·info )) is one of the 29 states of India , situated on the southeastern coast of the country. The state is the seventh largest state in India covering an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi). As per 2011 Census of India , the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana
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Telangana
^† Temporary Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh Symbols of Telangana EMBLEM Kakatiya Kala Thoranam , Charminar LANGUAGE Telugu Urdu (regional) SONG Jaya Jaya He Telangana Janani Jayakethanam ANIMAL Spotted deer BIRD Indian Roller FLOWER Senna auriculata FRUIT Mango TREE Prosopis cineraria RIVER Godavari , Krishna River , Manjira River and Musi River SPORT Kabaddi TELANGANA (/tɛlənˈɡɑːnə/ ( listen )) is one of the 29 states in India , located in southern India . Formed on 2 June 2014 as the youngest state(29th) in India , from the northwestern part of the Joint State of Andhra Pradesh , Telangana has an area of 112,077 square kilometres (43,273 sq mi), and a population of 35,193,978 (2011 census). It is the twelfth largest state in India , and the twelfth most populated state in India . Its major cities include Hyderabad , Warangal , Khammam , Karimnagar and Nizamabad . Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Karnataka to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south
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Yanam
YANAM (French: YANAON) is a town in the Indian union territory of Puducherry
Puducherry
, located in Yanam district , which forms a 30 km² enclave in the district of East Godavari
East Godavari
in Andhra Pradesh. It has a population of 32,000, most of whom speak Telugu . For 200 years it was a French colony, and, though united with India
India
in 1954, is still sometimes known as French Yanam. It possesses a blend of French and Telugu culture prevailing in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
. During French rule, the Tuesday market (mangalavaram santa) at Yanam
Yanam
was popular among Telugu people in the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
who visited Yanam
Yanam
to buy foreign and smuggled goods during Yanam
Yanam
People's Festival, which is held in January. Also, after implementation of the Sarda Act in British India in 1929, Telugu people came to Yanam
Yanam
to conduct child marriages , which remained legal under the French administration. In 1936, Yanam's population was 5,220
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Puducherry
PUDUCHERRY (/pʊdᵿˈtʃɛri/ ); literally New Town in Tamil ), formerly known as PONDICHERRY (/pɒndᵻˈtʃɛri/ ; is a union territory of India
India
. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India
India
, namely Pondichéry (Pondicherry; now Puducherry), Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and Yanaon
Yanaon
(Yanam). It is named after the largest district, Puducherry. Historically known as Pondicherry (Pāṇṭiccēri), the territory changed its official name to Puducherry
Puducherry
(Putuccēri) on 20 September 2006. Puducherry
Puducherry
lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula. The areas of Puducherry district
Puducherry district
and Karaikal district are bound by the state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, while Yanam district
Yanam district
and Mahé district
Mahé district
are enclosed by the states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Kerala
Kerala
respectively. Puducherry
Puducherry
is the 29th most populous and the third most densely populated state/union territory in India. It has a GDP of ₹0.21 lakh crore (US$3.3 billion) and ranks 27th in India
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Telugu People
The TELUGU PEOPLE or TELUGU PRAJALU (Telugu : తెలుగు ప్రజలు) are a Dravidian ethnic group that natively speak Telugu . The majority of Telugus reside in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh , Telangana
Telangana
and the Union Territory Yanam
Yanam
. They also have a significant population in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Karnataka
Karnataka
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Odisha
Odisha
. The Telugu language is the most spoken language in South India, the third-most spoken language in India
India
and the fourth most in the Indian subcontinent , following Hindi, Bengali and Punjabi. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Antiquity * 1.2 Satavahanas * 2 Language * 3 Culture * 3.1 Literature * 3.2 Arts * 3.3 Clothing * 3.4 Festivals * 4 Demographics * 4.1 Neighbouring States * 5 Notable Telugu people
Telugu people
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYANTIQUITY Andhra in Indian epic literature first appears at the time of the death of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
in 232 BC
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Dravidian Languages
The DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan
Pakistan
, southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Nepal
Nepal
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Bhutan
Bhutan
, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu , Tamil , Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam
Malayalam
. There are also small groups of Dravidian-speaking scheduled tribes , who live beyond the mainstream communities, such as the Kurukh in Eastern India, Kui people of Odisha
Odisha
and Gond tribes in Central India. Though some scholars argue that the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
may have been brought to India by migrations in the fourth or third millennium BCE
BCE
or even earlier, this hypothesis is generally discounted by mainstream scholars as there is no Dravidian language presence outside the Indian subcontinent. The Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
cannot easily be connected to any other language, and they could well be indigenous to India
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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Telugu Alphabet
TELUGU SCRIPT (Telugu : తెలుగు లిపి, translit. Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family
Brahmic family
of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language
Telugu language
, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana
Telangana
as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts and to some extent the Gondi language . It gained prominence during the Vengi Chalukyas era. It shares many similarities with its sibling Kannada script
Kannada script
. CONTENTS * 1 Derivation from Brahmi script * 2 Letters * 3 Other diacritics * 4 Places of articulation * 4.1 Articulation of consonants * 4.2 Consonant Conjuncts * 4.3 Consonant + Vowel
Vowel
Ligatures * 5 Numerals * 6 Unicode
Unicode
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DERIVATION FROM BRAHMI SCRIPTThe Brahmi script used by Mauryan
Mauryan
kings eventually reached the Krishna River
Krishna River
delta and would give rise to the Bhattiprolu script found on an urn purported to contain Lord Buddha
Buddha
's relics
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Telugu Braille
TELUGU BRAILLE is one of the Bharati braille
Bharati braille
alphabets, and it largely conforms to the letter values of the other Bharati alphabets. ALPHABETThe alphabet is as follows. Vowel letters are used rather than diacritics, and they occur after consonants in their spoken order. For orthographic conventions, see Bharati Braille
Braille
. PRINT అ ఆ ఇ ఈ ఉ ఊ ఎ ఏ ఐ ఒ ఓ ఔ ISO A ā I ī U ū E ē AI O ō AU BRAILLE PRINT ఋ ౠ ఌ ౡ ISO R̥ R̥̄ L̥ L̥̄ BRAILLE PRINT క ఖ గ ఘ ఙ ISO K KH G GH ṅ BRAILLE PRINT చ ఛ జ ఝ ఞ ISO C CH J JH ñ BRAILLE PRINT ట ఠ డ ఢ ణ ISO ṭ ṭH ḍ ḍH ṇ BRAILLE PRINT త థ ద ధ న ISO T TH D DH N BRAILLE PRINT ప ఫ బ భ మ ISO P PH B BH M BRAILLE PRINT య ర ల ళ వ ISO Y R L ḷ V BRAILLE PRINT శ ష స హ ఱ ISO ś ṣ S H ṛ BRAILLEThere is a single pre-formed conjunct, PRINT క్ష ISO Kṣ BRAILLEand the full range of syllable codas, PRINT క్ కం కః కఁ కఽ ISO HALANT ṃ ḥ N̆ AVAGRAHA BRAILLEPUNCTUATIONSee Bharati Braille#Punctuation
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States And Union Territories Of India
India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories . The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, _Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code_, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international, and formal, shorthand for indicating languages
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, _Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code_, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables. CONTENTS * 1 History and relationship to other ISO 639 standards * 2 B and T codes * 3 Scopes and types * 3.1 Collections of languages * 3.2 Reserved for local use * 3.3 Special situations * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORY AND RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER ISO 639 STANDARDSWork was begun on the ISO 639-2 standard in 1989, because the ISO 639-1 standard, which uses only two-letter codes for languages, is not able to accommodate a sufficient number of languages. The ISO 639-2 standard was first released in 1998. In practice, ISO 639-2 has largely been superseded by ISO 639-3 (2007), which includes codes for all the individual languages in ISO 639-2 plus many more
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, _Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages_, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the _ Ethnologue _ (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European . ISO 639-3 is intended for use as metadata codes in a wide range of applications. It is widely used in computer and information systems, such as the Internet, in which many languages need to be supported. In archives and other information storage, they are used in cataloging systems, indicating what language a resource is in or about. The codes are also frequently used in the linguistic literature and elsewhere to compensate for the fact that language names may be obscure or ambiguous
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