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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans. A closed numbering plan imposes a fixed number of digits assigned to every telephone, while an open numbering plan features a variable length of telephone numbers assigned to stations
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Numbering Scheme
There are many different NUMBERING SCHEMES for assigning nominal numbers to entities. These generally require an agreed set of rules, or a central coordinator. The schemes can be considered to be examples of a primary key of a database management system table , whose table definitions require a database design . The simplest numbering scheme is to assign cardinal numbers to entities. In some cases (such as computing, time-telling, and in some countries the numbering of floors in buildings) zero-based numbering is used, where the first entity is assigned "zero" instead of "one". Other numbering schemes are listed by field below
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Telecommunication
TELECOMMUNICATION is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire , radio , optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication
Telecommunication
occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology . It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables , or via electromagnetic radiation . Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing . Since the Latin
Latin
term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons , smoke signals , semaphore telegraphs , signal flags , and optical heliographs
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Telephone Number
A TELEPHONE NUMBER is a sequence of digits assigned to a fixed-line telephone subscriber station connected to a telephone line or to a wireless electronic telephony device, such as a radio telephone or a mobile telephone, or to other devices for data transmission via the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or other private networks. A telephone number serves as an address for switching telephone calls using a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbers are entered or dialed by a calling party on the originating telephone set, which transmits the sequence of digits in the process of signaling to a telephone exchange . The exchange completes the call either to another locally connected subscriber or via the PSTN to the called party
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Public Switched Telephone Network
The PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication . The PSTN consists of telephone lines , fiber optic cables , microwave transmission links, cellular networks , communications satellites , and undersea telephone cables , all interconnected by switching centers , thus allowing most telephones to communicate with each other. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core network and includes mobile and other networks, as well as fixed telephones. The technical operation of the PSTN adheres to the standards created by the ITU-T . These standards allow different networks in different countries to interconnect seamlessly
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North American Numbering Plan
The NORTH AMERICAN NUMBERING PLAN (NANP) is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses 25 distinct regions in twenty countries primarily in North America, including the Caribbean and the U.S. territories . Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. The NANP was originally devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America, to unify the diverse local numbering plans that had been established in the preceding decades. AT area code 706, formerly for northwest Mexico, was reassigned to northern Georgia , surrounding the Atlanta region which retained 404; and area code 903, which also served a small portion of northern Mexico, was reassigned to northeastern Texas when it split from area code 214 . Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721
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Telephone Numbers In Finland
Both Mainland Finland
Finland
and the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
share the same country code. Finland
Finland
's numbering plan was reorganised in 1996, with the number of area codes being reduced, and the trunk code being changed from 9 to 0. This meant that the area code for Helsinki
Helsinki
also changed: WITHIN FINLAND OUTSIDE FINLAND BEFORE 1996 90 xxx xxx +358 0 xxx xxx AFTER 1996 09 xxx xxx +358 9 xxx xxxThe default international access code became 00, although other prefixes such as 99 can be also used
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International Telecommunication Union
The INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU; French: _Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)_), originally the INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH UNION (French: _Union Télégraphique Internationale)_), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies . The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum , promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits , works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards . The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks
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E.164
E.164 is an ITU-T recommendation, titled _The international public telecommunication numbering plan_, that defines a numbering plan for the world-wide public switched telephone network (PSTN) and some other data networks . E.164 defines a general format for international telephone numbers . Plan-conforming numbers are limited to a maximum of 15 digits, excluding the international call prefix . The presentation of a number is usually prefixed with the plus sign (+ ), indicating that the number includes the country calling code . When dialing, the number must typically be prefixed with the appropriate international call prefix (in place of the plus sign), which is a trunk code to reach an international circuit from within the country of call origination. The title of the original version and first revision of the E.164 standard was "Numbering Plan for the ISDN Era"
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List Of Country Calling Codes
COUNTRY CALLING CODES or COUNTRY DIAL IN CODES are telephone dialing prefixes for the member countries or regions of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU). They are defined by the ITU-T in standards E.123 and E.164 . The prefixes enable international direct dialing (IDD), and are also referred to as international subscriber dialing (ISD) codes. Worldwide distribution of country calling codes colored by first digit Country codes are a component of the international telephone numbering plan , and are necessary only when dialing a telephone number to establish a call to another country. Country codes are dialed before the national telephone number. By convention, international telephone numbers are represented by prefixing the country code with a plus sign (+), which also indicates to the subscriber that the local international call prefix must first be dialed
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Private Branch Exchange
A BUSINESS TELEPHONE SYSTEM is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key telephone systems to large-scale private branch exchanges. A business telephone system differs from an installation of several telephones with multiple central office (CO) lines in that the CO lines used are directly controllable in key telephone systems from multiple telephone stations, and that such a system often provides additional features related to call handling. Business telephone systems are often broadly classified into key telephone systems, and private branch exchanges, but many hybrid systems exist
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Dialing Plan
A DIALING PLAN establishes the permitted sequences of digits dialed on subscriber or station lines with subscriber premises equipment, such as telephones and private branch exchange (PBX) systems. Dialing plans in the public switch telephone network (PSTN) have traditionally been more commonly referred to as dialing procedures. The dialing plan of a private telephone system or a customer premise equipment, such as an analog telephone adapter (ATA) or an IP phone , is sometimes also called DIAL PLAN
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Switchboard Operator
In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards , and SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Women as switchboard operators * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONEach pair of plugs was part of a cord circuit with a switch associated that let the operator participate in the call. Each jack had a light above it that lit when the telephone receiver was lifted (the earliest systems required a generator on the phone to be cranked by hand). Lines from the central office were usually arranged along the bottom row. Before the advent of operator distance dialing and customer Direct Dial (DDD) calling, switchboard operators would work with their counterparts in the distant central office to complete long distance calls
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Cord Circuit
In telecommunication , a CORD CIRCUIT is a switchboard circuit in which a plug-terminated cord is used to establish connections manually between user lines or between trunks and user lines. A number of cord circuits are furnished as part of the switchboard position equipment. The cords may be referred to as front cord and rear cord or trunk cord and station cord. In modern cordless switchboards, the cord-circuit function is switch operated and may be programmable . In early and middle 20th century telephone exchanges this task was done by a supervisory relay set known variously as junctor circuit or district junctor . Later designs made it a function of the trunk circuit or absorbed it into software. SEE ALSO * Switched loop REFERENCES * This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C" (in support of MIL-STD-188 ). This article related to telephony is a stub
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Rotary Dial
A ROTARY DIAL is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing . It is used when initiating a telephone call to transmit the destination telephone number to a telephone exchange . On the rotary dial, the digits are arranged in a circular layout so that a finger wheel may be rotated with one finger from the position of each digit to a fixed stop position, implemented by the finger stop, which is a mechanical barrier to prevent further rotation. When released at the finger stop, the wheel returns to its home position by spring action at a speed regulated by a governor device . During this return rotation, the dial interrupts the direct electrical current of the telephone line (local loop ) a specific number of times for each digit and thereby generates electrical pulses which the telephone exchange decodes into each dialed digit
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Seven-digit Dialing
SEVEN-DIGIT DIALING is a telephone dialing procedure customary in the territories of the North American Numbering Plan , for dialing telephone numbers in the local calling area. It is also sometimes known as local format or network format. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Structure * 3 Office code protection * 4 Limitations * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYOriginally, telephone exchanges consisted of manual boards operated by switchboard operators . Numbers were typically four digits or fewer for local ca