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Telecommunications In Turkey
Telecommunication
Telecommunication
is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.[1][2] Telecommunication
Telecommunication
occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physiical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation.[3][4][5][6][7][8] Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing
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Teleconnection
Teleconnection in atmospheric science refers to climate anomalies being related to each other at large distances (typically thousands of kilometers). The most emblematic teleconnection is that linking sea-level pressure at Tahiti
Tahiti
and Darwin, Australia, which defines the Southern Oscillation.Contents1 History 2 Theory 3 Applications 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] Teleconnections were first noted by the British meteorologist Sir Gilbert Walker in the late 19th century, through computation of the correlation between time series of atmospheric pressure, temperature and rainfall. They served as a building block for the understanding of climate variability, by showing that the latter was not purely random. Indeed, the term El Niño– Southern Oscillation
Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) is an implicit acknowledgment that the phenomenon underlies variability in several locations at once
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Edwin Armstrong
Edwin Howard Armstrong
Edwin Howard Armstrong
(December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor, best known for developing FM (frequency modulation) radio and the superheterodyne receiver system. He held 42 patents and received numerous awards, including the first Medal of Honor awarded by the Institute of Radio Engineers (now IEEE), the French Legion of Honor, the 1941 Franklin Medal
Franklin Medal
and the 1942 Edison Medal
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Communications Satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations.[1] Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth
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Wireless Communication
Wireless
Wireless
communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for Bluetooth
Bluetooth
or as far as millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking
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Radio Communications
Radio
Radio
is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.[n 1] When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (/mɑːrˈkoʊni/;[1] Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo marˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian[2][3][4][5] inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission[6] and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. He is credited as the inventor of radio,[7] and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
with Karl Ferdinand Braun
Karl Ferdinand Braun
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".[8][9][10] Marconi was also an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in the United Kingdom in 1897 (which became the Marconi Company)
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Nobel Prize In Physics
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics
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JC Bose
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose,[2] CSI,[3] CIE,[4] FRS[5] (/boʊs/;[6] Bengali: [dʒɔgod̪iʃ tʃɔnd̪ro bosu]; 30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis,[7] was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction.[8] Living in British India, he pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.[9] IEEE
IEEE
named him one of the fathers of radio science.[10] Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.[11] Born in Mymensingh, Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
(present-day Bangladesh), during British governance of India,[12] Bose graduated from St
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Charles Wheatstone
Sir Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone
/ˈwiːtstən/[1] FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875), was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images), and the Playfair cipher
Playfair cipher
(an encryption technique)
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Samuel F.B. Morse
Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code
Morse code
and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.Contents1 Birth and education 2 Painting 3 Attributed artworks 4 Telegraph 5 Relays 6 Federal support 7 Patent 8 Political views 9 Marriages 10 Later years10.1 Litigation over telegraph patent 10.2 Foreign recognition 10.3 Transatlantic cable 10.4 Last years and death11 Honors and awards 12 Patents 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External linksBirth and educationBirthplace of Morse, Charlestown, Massachusetts, c. 1898 photo.Samuel F. B
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Telegraph
Telegraphy
Telegraphy
(from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
(March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[4] was a Scottish-born[N 2] scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone[7] and founding the American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph
Telegraph
Company (AT&T) in 1885.[8][9] Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[10] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S
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Lee De Forest
Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor, self-described "Father of Radio", and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-film recording used for motion pictures. He had over 180 patents, but also a tumultuous career—he boasted that he made, then lost, four fortunes. He was also involved in several major patent lawsuits, spent a substantial part of his income on legal bills, and was even tried (and acquitted) for mail fraud. His most famous invention, in 1906, was the three-element "Audion" (triode) vacuum tube, the first practical amplification device
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Microwave Transmission
Microwave
Microwave
transmission is the transmission of information or energy by microwave radio waves. Although an experimental 64 km (40 mile) microwave telecommunication link across the English Channel was demonstrated in 1931, the development of radar in World War II provided the technology for practical exploitation of microwave communication. In the 1950s, large transcontinental microwave relay networks, consisting of chains of repeater stations linked by line-of-sight beams of microwaves were built in Europe and America to relay long distance telephone traffic and television programs between cities. Communication satellites
Communication satellites
which transferred data between ground stations by microwaves took over much long distance traffic in the 1960s
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Vladimir K. Zworykin
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin (Russian: Влади́мир Козьми́ч Зворы́кин, Vladimir Koz'mich Zvorykin; July 29 [O.S. July 17] 1888 – July 29, 1982)[1][2] was a Russian-born American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology. Educated in Russia
Russia
and in France, he spent most of his life in the United States. Zworykin invented a television transmitting and receiving system employing cathode ray tubes. He played a role in the practical development of television from the early thirties, including charge storage-type tubes, infrared image tubes and the electron microscope.[3]Contents1 Biography 2 Second marriage and calling 3 Death 4 Honors 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBiography[edit] Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin was born in Murom, Russia, in 1888, on July 29 (old style July 17), to the family of a prosperous merchant
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