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Telecommunications
Telecommunication
Telecommunication
is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.[1][2] Telecommunication
Telecommunication
occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physiical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation.[3][4][5][6][7][8] Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing
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Teleconnection
Teleconnection in atmospheric science refers to climate anomalies being related to each other at large distances (typically thousands of kilometers). The most emblematic teleconnection is that linking sea-level pressure at Tahiti
Tahiti
and Darwin, Australia, which defines the Southern Oscillation.Contents1 History 2 Theory 3 Applications 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] Teleconnections were first noted by the British meteorologist Sir Gilbert Walker in the late 19th century, through computation of the correlation between time series of atmospheric pressure, temperature and rainfall. They served as a building block for the understanding of climate variability, by showing that the latter was not purely random. Indeed, the term El Niño– Southern Oscillation
Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) is an implicit acknowledgment that the phenomenon underlies variability in several locations at once
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Electrical Cable
An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.Contents1 Etymology 2 Modern applications2.1 Cables and electromagnetic fields 2.2 Fire
Fire
protection 2.3 Types 2.4 Codes and colours3 Hybrid cables 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The term cable originally referred to a nautical line of specific length where multiple ropes are combined to produce a strong thick line that was used to anchor large ships. As electric technology developed, people changed from using bare copper wire to using groupings of wires and various sheathing and shackling methods that resembled the mechanical cabling so the term was adopted for electrical wiring. In the 19th century and early 20th century, electrical cable was often insulated using cloth, rubber or paper. Plastic materials are generally used today, except for high-reliability power cables
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Horn (instrument)
Plucked Appalachian dulcimer
Appalachian dulcimer
(United States) Autoharp Baglama
Baglama
or Saz (Turkey) Bajo sexto
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Nobel Prize In Physics
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Edwin Armstrong
Edwin Howard Armstrong
Edwin Howard Armstrong
(December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor, best known for developing FM (frequency modulation) radio and the superheterodyne receiver system. He held 42 patents and received numerous awards, including the first Medal of Honor awarded by the Institute of Radio Engineers (now IEEE), the French Legion of Honor, the 1941 Franklin Medal
Franklin Medal
and the 1942 Edison Medal
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Édouard Estaunié
Édouard Estaunié
Édouard Estaunié
(4 February 1862 in Dijon
Dijon
– 2 April 1942 in Paris) was a French novelist. Estaunié trained as a scientist and engineer before turning to the novel in 1891. In 1904, he devised the word "telecommunication". He was elected to the Académie française in 1923. He was also a reviewer, critic, and homme de lettres as well as a novelist. Novels[edit]Un simple (1891) Bonne Dame (1891) Le Ferment (1899) Les choses voyent (1913) L'ascension de M. Baslèvre (1920) L'appel de la route (1921) L'infirme aux mains de lumière (1923)Cultural officesPreceded by Alfred Capus Seat 24 Académie française 1923-1942 Succeeded by Louis-Pasteur Vallery-RadotAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 46760656 LCCN: n50083206 ISNI: 0000 0001 2130 9152 GND: 118682423 SELIBR: 247257 SUDOC: 026853779 BNF: cb119019388 (data) NKC: xx0004419 SNAC: w6m36g0hThis French biographical article is a stub
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Electromagnetic Radiation
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.[1] It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.[2] Classically, electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum. The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave. The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a light bulb) is a sphere. The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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Technology
Technology
Technology
("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia[2]) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology
Technology
can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment
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Heliograph
A heliograph (helios (Greek: Ἥλιος), meaning "sun", and γραφειν graphein, meaning "write") is a wireless solar telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight (generally using Morse code) reflected by a mirror. The flashes are produced by momentarily pivoting the mirror, or by interrupting the beam with a shutter.[1] The heliograph was a simple but effective instrument for instantaneous optical communication over long distances during the late 19th and early 20th century.[1] Its main uses were military, survey and forest protection work. Heliographs were standard issue in the British and Australian armies until the 1960s, and were used by the Pakistani army as late as 1975.[2]Contents1 Description 2 History 3 Automated heliographs 4 In fiction 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit]Fig. 2: German heliograph made by R. Fuess in Berlin (on display at the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt)There were many heliograph types
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Communication
Communication
Communication
(from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share"[1]) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: [2]The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message
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Information
Information
Information
is any entity or form that resolves uncertainty or provides the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts.[1] As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.[citation needed] Information
Information
is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation
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Electromagnetic
Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism
is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields and light, and is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation.[1] Lightning
Lightning
is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions.The word electromagnetism is a compound form of two Greek terms, ἤλεκτρον ēlektron, "amber", and μαγνῆτις λίθος magnētis lithos,[2] which means "Μagnesian stone",[3] a type of iron ore
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Homing Pigeon
The homing pigeon is a variety of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) derived from the rock pigeon, selectively bred for its ability to find its way home over extremely long distances. The wild rock pigeon has an innate homing ability,[1] meaning that it will generally return to its nest, (it is believed) using magnetoreception.[2] This made it relatively easy to breed from the birds that repeatedly found their way home over long distances. Flights as long as 1,800 km (1,100 miles) have been recorded by birds in competitive pigeon racing.[3] Their average flying speed over moderate 640 km (400 miles) distances is around 80 km/h (50 miles per hour) but speeds of up to 140 km/h (90 miles per hour) have been observed in top racers for short[clarification needed] distances. Because of this skill, homing pigeons were used to carry messages as messenger pigeons
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Wire
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire
Wire
is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire
Wire
gauges come in various standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in "multistranded wire", which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Wire
Wire
comes in solid core, stranded, or braided forms. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square, hexagonal, flattened rectangular, or other cross-sections, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers
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