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Telecine
Telecine
Telecine
(/ˈtɛləsɪni/ or /ˌtɛləˈsɪniː/) is the process of transferring motion picture film into video and is performed in a color suite. The term is also used to refer to the equipment used in the post-production process.[1] Telecine
Telecine
enables a motion picture, captured originally on film stock, to be viewed with standard video equipment, such as television sets, video cassette recorders (VCR), DVD, Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
or computers. This allows film producers, television producers and film distributors working in the film industry to release their products on video and allows producers to use video production equipment to complete their filmmaking projects
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Kinescope
Kinescope
Kinescope
/ˈkɪnɪskoʊp/, shortened to kine /ˈkɪniː/, also known as telerecording in Britain, is a recording of a television program on motion picture film, directly through a lens focused on the screen of a video monitor. The process was pioneered during the 1940s for the preservation, re-broadcasting and sale of television programmes before the use of commercial broadcast-quality videotape became prevalent for these purposes. Typically, the term can refer to the process itself, the equipment used for the procedure (a 16 mm or 35 mm movie camera mounted in front of a video monitor, and synchronized to the monitor's scanning rate), or a film made using the process. Kinescopes were the only practical way to preserve live television broadcasts prior to the introduction of videotape in 1956
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Audio Timescale-pitch Modification
Time stretching is the process of changing the speed or duration of an audio signal without affecting its pitch. Pitch scaling or pitch shifting is the opposite: the process of changing the pitch without affecting the speed. Similar methods can change speed, pitch, or both at once, in a time-varying way. These processes are used, for instance, to match the pitches and tempos of two pre-recorded clips for mixing when the clips cannot be reperformed or resampled. They are also used to create effects such as increasing the range of an instrument (like pitch shifting a guitar down an octave).Contents1 Resampling 2 Time domain2.1 SOLA 2.2 Frame-based approach3 Frequency
Frequency
domain3.1 Phase vocoder 3.2 Sinusoidal spectral modeling4 Speed hearing and speed talking 5 Pitch scaling 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksResampling[edit] The simplest way to change the duration or pitch of a digital audio clip is through sample rate conversion
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Broadcast Television
Terrestrial television
Terrestrial television
or broadcast television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna. The term is more common in Europe, while in North America
North America
it is referred to as broadcast television or sometimes over-the-air television (OTA)
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Live Television
Live television is a television production broadcast in real-time, as events happen, in the present. In a secondary meaning, it may refer to streaming television over the internet. In most cases live programming is not being recorded as it is shown on TV, but rather was not rehearsed or edited and is being shown only as it was recorded prior to being aired. Shows broadcast live include newscasts, morning shows, awards shows, sports programs, reality programs and, occasionally, episodes of scripted television series. Live television was more common until the late 1950s, when videotape technology was invented. Because of the prohibitive cost, adoption was slow, and some television shows remained live until the 1970s, such as soap operas. To prevent unforeseen issues, live television programs may be delayed, which allows censors to edit the program
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Television Program
A television show is a series of related productions intended for broadcast on over-the-air, cable television or Internet television, other than a commercial, trailer or any other segment of content not serving as attraction for viewership. More rarely, it may be a single production, also called a television program (British English: programme). A limited number of episodes of a television show may be called a miniseries or a serial or limited series. A television series is without a fixed length and are usually divided into seasons (U.S. and Canada) or series (UK), yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. While there is no defined length, U.S. industry practice has traditionally favored longer television seasons than those of other countries. A one-time broadcast may be called a "special" or particularly in the UK a "special episode"
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Oklahoma! (1955 Film)
Oklahoma! is a 1955 musical film based on the 1943 stage musical Oklahoma!, written by composer Richard Rodgers, and lyricist/librettist Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
and starring Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones
Shirley Jones
(in her film debut), Rod Steiger, Charlotte Greenwood, Gloria Grahame, Gene Nelson, James Whitmore
James Whitmore
and Eddie Albert. The production was the only musical directed by Fred Zinnemann.[3] Oklahoma! was the first feature film photographed in the Todd-AO
Todd-AO
70 mm widescreen process (and was simultaneously filmed in CinemaScope 35mm). Set in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams (Jones) and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain (MacRae) and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry (Steiger)
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Slide Projector
A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device for showing photographic slides. 35 mm slide projectors, direct descendants of the larger-format magic lantern, first came into widespread use during the 1950s as a form of occasional home entertainment; family members and friends would gather to view slide shows, which typically consisted of slides snapped during vacations and at family events. Slide projectors were also widely used in educational and other institutional settings. Photographic film
Photographic film
slides and projectors have mostly been replaced by image files on digital storage media shown on a projection screen by using a video projector or simply displayed on a large-screen video monitor.Contents1 History 2 Components 3 Types of projectors 4 Manufacturers 5 See also 6 Slide projector
Slide projector
in cinematography 7 ReferencesHistory[edit]Continuous-Slide Lantern, ca
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Friends
Friends
Friends
is an American television sitcom, created by David Crane and Marta Kauffman, which aired on NBC
NBC
from September 22, 1994 to May 6, 2004, lasting ten seasons. With an ensemble cast starring Jennifer Aniston, Courteney Cox, Lisa Kudrow, Matt LeBlanc, Matthew Perry
Matthew Perry
and David Schwimmer, the show revolves around six 20–30-something friends living in Manhattan. It is widely regarded as one of the greatest TV shows of all time. The series was produced by Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions, in association with Warner Bros. Television. The original executive producers were Kevin S. Bright, Marta Kauffman, and David Crane. Kauffman and Crane began developing Friends
Friends
under the title Insomnia Cafe between November and December 1993. They presented the idea to Bright, and together they pitched a seven-page treatment of the show to NBC
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Semitones
A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone,[3] is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music,[4] and it is considered the most dissonant[5] when sounded harmonically. It is defined as the interval between two adjacent notes in a 12-tone scale. For example, C is adjacent to C♯; the interval between them is a semitone. In a 12-note approximately equally divided scale, any interval can be defined in terms of an appropriate number of semitones (e.g. a whole tone or major second is 2 semitones wide, a major third 4 semitones, and a perfect fifth 7 semitones. In music theory, a distinction is made[6] between a diatonic semitone, or minor second (an interval encompassing two different staff positions, e.g. from C to D♭) and a chromatic semitone or augmented unison (an interval between two notes at the same staff position, e.g. from C to C♯)
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Timecode
A timecode (alternatively, time code) is a sequence of numeric codes generated at regular intervals by a timing synchronization system. Timecode
Timecode
is used in video production, show control and other application which require temporal coordination or logging of recording or actions.Contents1 Video and film timecode 2 Other time code formats 3 Timecode
Timecode
generators 4 See also 5 ReferencesVideo and film timecode[edit] In video production and filmmaking, SMPTE timecode
SMPTE timecode
is used extensively for synchronization, and for logging and identifying material in recorded media. During filmmaking or video production shoot, the camera assistant will typically log the start and end timecodes of shots, and the data generated will be sent on to the editorial department for use in referencing those shots
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Field (video)
In video, a field is one of the many still images which are displayed sequentially to create the impression of motion on the screen. Two fields comprise one video frame. When the fields are displayed on a video monitor they are "interlaced" so that the content of one field will be used on all of the odd-numbered lines on the screen and the other field will be displayed on the even lines. Converting fields to a still frame image requires a process called deinterlacing, in which the missing lines are duplicated or interpolated to recreate the information that would have been contained in the discarded field. Since each field contains only half of the information of a full frame, however, deinterlaced images do not have the resolution of a full frame. In order to increase the resolution of video images, therefore, new schemes have been created that capture full-frame images for each frame
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PAL
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB. This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.Contents1 History 2 Colour encoding2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs
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Home Movies
A home movie is a short amateur film or video typically made just to preserve a visual record of family activities, a vacation, or a special event, and intended for viewing at home by family and friends. Originally, home movies were made on photographic film in formats that usually limited the movie-maker to about three minutes per roll of costly camera film. The vast majority of amateur film formats lacked audio, shooting silent film. The 1970s saw the advent of consumer camcorders that could record an hour or two of video on one relatively inexpensive videocassette which also had audio
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Video Tape
Videotape
Videotape
is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sound in addition. Information stored can be in the form of either an analog signal or digital signal. Videotape
Videotape
is used in both video tape recorders (VTRs) or, more commonly, videocassette recorders (VCRs) and camcorders. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram. Because video signals have a very high bandwidth, and stationary heads would require extremely high tape speeds, in most cases, a helical-scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions. Tape is a linear method of storing information and thus imposes delays to access a portion of the tape that is not already under the heads. The early 2000s saw the introduction and rise to prominence of high quality random-access video recording media such as hard disks and flash memory
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Synchronization
Synchronization
Synchronization
is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. The conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or in time. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are said to be synchronous or in sync—and those that are not are asynchronous. Today, time synchronization can occur between systems around the world through satellite navigation signals.Contents1 Transport 2 Communication 3 Dynamical systems 4 Human movement 5 Uses 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTransport[edit] Time-keeping and synchronization of clocks has been a critical problem in long-distance ocean navigation. Before global positioning systems, navigators required accurate time in conjunction with astronomical observations to determine how far east or west their vessel traveled. The invention of an accurate marine chronometer revolutionized marine navigation
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