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Technical Standard
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard. A technical standard may be developed privately or unilaterally, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, military, etc. Standards can also be developed by groups such as trade unions, and trade associations. Standards organizations
Standards organizations
often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards: these might become mandatory if adopted by a government (i.e
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Coordination Problem
In game theory, coordination games are a class of games with multiple pure strategy Nash equilibria in which players choose the same or corresponding strategies. If this game is a coordination game, then the following inequalities hold in the payoff matrix for player 1 (rows): A > B, D > C, and for player 2 (columns): a > c, d > b. See Fig. 1. In this game the strategy profiles Left, Up and Right, Down are pure Nash equilibria, marked in gray. This setup can be extended for more than two strategies (strategies are usually sorted so that the Nash equilibria are in the diagonal from top left to bottom right), as well as for a game with more than two players.Left RightUp A, a C, cDown B, b D, dFig
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International Organization For Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards
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Trade Secret
A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.[1] In some jurisdictions, such secrets are referred to as confidential information.Contents1 Definition 2 Value 3 Protection 4 Misappropriation 5 History5.1 Roman law 5.2 19th century 5.3 Current regulation5.3.1 European Union 5.3.2 Commonwealth jurisdictions 5.3.3 United States6 Comparison to other types of intellectual property law6.1 Comparison with trademarks 6.2 Comparison with patents7 Criticism 8 Cases 9 See also 10 References and notes 11 Further reading 12 External linksDefinition[edit] The precise language by which a trade secret is defined varies by jurisdiction, as do the particular types of information that are subject to trade secret protection
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Classified Information
Classified information
Classified information
is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people with the necessary security clearance and need to know, and mishandling of the material can incur criminal penalties. A formal security clearance is required to view or handle classified documents or to access classified data. The clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information are marked with one of several (hierarchical) levels of sensitivity—e.g. restricted, confidential, secret and top secret. The choice of level is based on an impact assessment; governments have their own criteria, which include how to determine the classification of an information asset, and rules on how to protect information classified at each level
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Norm (social)
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.[1] Social psychology
Social psychology
recognizes smaller group units, such as a team or an office, may also endorse norms separately or in addition to cultural or societal expectations.[2] In other words, norms are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct as well as individual perceptions of particular group conduct.[3] They can be viewed as cultural products (including values, customs, and traditions)[4] which represent individuals' basic knowledge of what others do and think that they should do.[5] Furthermore,
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Telecommunications Industry Association
The Telecommunications Industry Association
Telecommunications Industry Association
(TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products, and currently represents nearly 400 companies
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European Committee For Standardization
The European Committee for Standardization
European Committee for Standardization
(CEN, French: Comité Européen de Normalisation) is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union
European Union
(EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications. The CEN was founded in 1961. Its thirty four national members work together to develop European Standards (ENs) in various sectors to build a European internal market for goods and services and to position Europe
Europe
in the global economy
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International Standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide. The most prominent organization is the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).Contents1 Purpose 2 History2.1 Standardization 2.2 International organizations3 See also 4 References 5 External linksPurpose[edit] International standards may be used either by direct application or by a process of modifying an international standard to suit local conditions
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Validation And Verification
Verification and validation are independent procedures that are used together for checking that a product, service, or system meets requirements and specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose.[1] These are critical components of a quality management system such as ISO 9000. The words "verification" and "validation" are sometimes preceded with "independent", indicating that the verification and validation is to be performed by a disinterested third party. "Independent verification and validation" can be abbreviated as "IV&V". In practice, the usage of these terms varies. Sometimes they are even used interchangeably. The PMBOK guide, a standard adopted by IEEE, defines them as follows in its 4th edition:[2]"Validation. The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. It often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers. Contrast with verification." "Verification
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Pharmaceutical Drug
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Social Sciences
Social science
Social science
is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a social science. The social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science , psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century. A more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences can be found at Outline of social science. Positivist
Positivist
social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense
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Economics
Economics
Economics
(/ɛkəˈnɒmɪks, iːkə-/)[1][2][3] is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.[4] Economics
Economics
focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics
Microeconomics
analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies)
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Secondary Sector Of The Economy
The secondary sector include industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction. This sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods or where they are suitable for used by other businesses, for export, or sale to domestic consumers. This sector is often divided into light industry and heavy industry. Many of these industries consume large quantities of energy and require factories and machinery to convert the raw materials into goods and products. They also produce waste materials and waste heat that may cause environmental problems or cause pollution. The secondary sector supports both the primary and tertiary sector. Some economists contrast wealth-producing sectors in an economy such as manufacturing with the service sector which tends to be wealth-consuming.[1] Examples of service may include retail, insurance, and government
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Supply Chain
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain
Supply chain
activities involve the transformation of natural resources, raw materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer.[2] In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is recyclable
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Pharmaceutical Industry
The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications.[1] Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices
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