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Technical Standard
A TECHNICAL STANDARD is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems . It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention , company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard . A technical standard may be developed privately or unilaterally, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, military, etc. Standards can also be developed by groups such as trade unions, and trade associations. Standards organizations often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards: these might become mandatory if adopted by a government (i.e. through legislation ), business contract, etc. The standardization process may be by edict or may involve the formal consensus of technical experts
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Social Sciences
SOCIAL SCIENCE is a major category of academic disciplines , concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a "social science". The social sciences include economics , political science , human geography , demography , psychology , sociology , anthropology , archaeology , jurisprudence , history, and linguistics . The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century. A more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences can be found at Outline of social science . Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense
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Economics
ECONOMICS (UK English: /iːkəˈnɒmɪks/ , /ɛkəˈnɒmɪks/ ; US English: /ɛkəˈnɑːmɪks/ , /ikəˈnɑːmɪks/ ) is "a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production , distribution , and consumption of goods and services ". Economics
Economics
focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets , their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies)
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Secondary Sector Of The Economy
The secondary sector include industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction . This sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods or where they are suitable for used by other businesses, for export , or sale to domestic consumers. This sector is often divided into light industry and heavy industry . Many of these industries consume large quantities of energy and require factories and machinery to convert the raw materials into goods and products. They also produce waste materials and waste heat that may cause environmental problems or cause pollution . The secondary sector supports both the primary and tertiary sector. Some economists contrast wealth-producing sectors in an economy such as manufacturing with the service sector which tends to be wealth-consuming. Examples of service may include retail, insurance, and government
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Supply Chain
A SUPPLY CHAIN is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer . Supply chain
Supply chain
activities involve the transformation of natural resources , raw materials , and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer . In sophisticated supply chain systems , used products may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is recyclable. Supply chains link value chains
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Validation And Verification
VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION are independent procedures that are used together for checking that a product, service, or system meets requirements and specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose. These are critical components of a quality management system such as ISO 9000 . The words "verification" and "validation" are sometimes preceded with "independent", indicating that the verification and validation is to be performed by a disinterested third party. "Independent verification and validation" can be abbreviated as "IV these validations help to keep the flow qualified. It is a process of establishing evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a product, service, or system accomplishes its intended requirements. This often involves acceptance of fitness for purpose with end users and other product stakeholders. This is often an external process
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ASTM International
ASTM INTERNATIONAL is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services . Some 12,575 ASTM voluntary consensus standards operate globally. The organization's headquarters is in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
, about 5 mi (8.0 km) northwest of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. Founded in 1898 as the American Section of the International Association for Testing Materials, ASTM International
ASTM International
predates other standards organizations such as the BSI (1901), IEC (1906), DIN (1917), ANSI (1918), AFNOR (1926), and ISO (1947)
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Telecommunications Industry Association
The TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute ( ANSI
ANSI
) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT ) products, and currently represents nearly 400 companies. TIA's Standards and Technology Department operates twelve engineering committees, which develop guidelines for private radio equipment, cellular towers , data terminals , satellites , telephone terminal equipment, accessibility , VoIP
VoIP
devices, structured cabling , data centers , mobile device communications, multimedia multicast , vehicular telematics , healthcare ICT, machine to machine communications , and smart utility networks
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European Committee For Standardization
The EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION (CEN, French : COMITé EUROPéEN DE NORMALISATION) is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications. The CEN was founded in 1961. Its thirty four national members work together to develop EUROPEAN STANDARDS (ENs) in various sectors to build a European internal market for goods and services and to position Europe
Europe
in the global economy
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International Standard
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS are standards developed by international standards organizations . International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide. The most prominent organization is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 History * 2.1 Standardization * 2.2 International organizations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PURPOSEInternational standards may be used either by direct application or by a process of modifying an international standard to suit local conditions
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International Organization For Standardization
The INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) is an international standard -setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations . Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards . It is headquartered in Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland, and as of March 2017 works in 162 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council
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Pharmaceutical Industry
The PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications . Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices. They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting , testing, safety, efficacy and marketing of drugs
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Medic
A MEDIC is an umbrella term for a person involved in medicine. The following fall under this term: a medical doctor , medical student and sometimes a medically-trained individual participating in a emergency such as a paramedic or an emergency medical responder . Among physicians in the UK, the term "medic" indicates someone who has followed a "medical" career path in postgraduate professional training accredited by a College of Physicians , such as cardiology or endocrinology , in contrast to a surgical branch of specialisation accredited by a College of Surgeons . TYPES A German military paramedic providing first aid to a wounded soldier during the Battle of France , 1940 "Medic" may be used to refer but not limited to people in the following roles: * Emergency physician , a medical doctor (M.D
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Standard (metrology)
In metrology (the science of measurement), a STANDARD (or ETALON) is an object , system, or experiment that bears a defined relationship to a unit of measurement of a physical quantity. Standards are the fundamental reference for a system of weights and measures, against which all other measuring devices are compared. Historical standards for length, volume, and mass were defined by many different authorities, which resulted in confusion and inaccuracy of measurements. Modern measurements are defined in relationship to internationally standardized reference objects, which are used under carefully controlled laboratory conditions to define the units of length, mass, electrical potential, and other physical quantities
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National Diet Library
The NATIONAL DIET LIBRARY (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the only national library in Japan
Japan
. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan
Japan
(国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy. The library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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