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Technical Specifications
A SPECIFICATION often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard . There are different types of technical or engineering specifications (specs), and different usages of the term in different technical contexts. They often refer to particular documents, and/or particular information within them. The word specification is broadly defined as "to state explicitly or in detail" or "to be specific". Using the term "specification," without a clear indication of what kind, is confusing and considered bad practice. A REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION is a documented requirement , or set of documented requirements, to be satisfied by a given material, design, product, service, etc. It is a common early part of engineering design and product development processes, in many fields
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Definitions
A DEFINITION is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word , phrase , or other set of symbols ). Definitions can be classified into two large categories, intensional definitions (which try to give the essence of a term) and extensional definitions (which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes). Another important category of definitions is the class of ostensive definitions , which convey the meaning of a term by pointing out examples. A term may have many different senses and multiple meanings, and thus require multiple definitions. In mathematics , a definition is used to give a precise meaning to a new term, instead of describing a pre-existing term. Definitions and axioms are the basis on which all of mathematics is constructed
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Terminology
TERMINOLOGY is the study of terms and their use. TERMS are words and compound words or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. Terminology
Terminology
is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology
Terminology
differs from lexicography , as it involves the study of concepts , conceptual systems and their labels (terms), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings. Terminology
Terminology
is a discipline that systematically studies the "labelling or designating of concepts" particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activity. It does this through the research and analysis of terms in context for the purpose of documenting and promoting consistent usage
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Abbreviations
An ABBREVIATION (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions , crasis , acronyms , or initialisms , with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. :p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction
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Test Method
A TEST METHOD is a method for a test in science or engineering , such as a physical test , chemical test , or statistical test . It is a definitive procedure that produces a test result. A test can be considered a technical operation or procedure that consists of determination of one or more characteristics of a given product, process or service according to a specified procedure. Often a test is part of an experiment . The test result can be qualitative (yes/no), categorical , or quantitative (a measured value). It can be a personal observation or the output of a precision measuring instrument . Usually the test result is the dependent variable , the measured response based on the particular conditions of the test or the level of the independent variable . Some tests, however, may involve changing the independent variable to determine the level at which a certain response occurs: in this case, the test result is the independent variable
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Tolerance (engineering)
ENGINEERING TOLERANCE is the permissible limit or limits of variation in: * a physical dimension ; * a measured value or physical property of a material, manufactured object, system, or service; * other measured values (such as temperature, humidity, etc.); * in engineering and safety , a physical distance or space (tolerance), as in a truck (lorry), train or boat under a bridge as well as a train in a tunnel (see structure gauge and loading gauge ); * in mechanical engineering the space between a bolt and a nut or a hole, etc..Dimensions, properties, or conditions may have some variation without significantly affecting functioning of systems, machines, structures, etc. A variation beyond the tolerance (for example, a temperature that is too hot or too cold) is said to be noncompliant, rejected, or exceeding the tolerance
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Ownership
OWNERSHIP of property may be private, collective, or common, and the property may be of objects , land or real estate , or intellectual property . Determining ownership in law involves determining who has certain rights and duties over the property. These rights and duties, sometimes called a "bundle of rights", can be separated and held by different parties. The process and mechanics of ownership are fairly complex: one can gain, transfer, and lose ownership of property in a number of ways. To acquire property one can purchase it with money, trade it for other property, win it in a bet, receive it as a gift , inherit it, find it, receive it as damages , earn it by doing work or performing services, make it, or homestead it. One can transfer or lose ownership of property by selling it for money , exchanging it for other property, giving it as a gift, misplacing it, or having it stripped from one's ownership through legal means such as eviction , foreclosure , seizure , or taking
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Copyright
COPYRIGHT is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright
Copyright
is a form of intellectual property , applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works , distribution, public performance , and "moral rights " such as attribution
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Standard Operating Procedure
A STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE, or SOP, is a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out routine operations. SOPs aim to achieve efficiency, quality output and uniformity of performance, while reducing miscommunication and failure to comply with industry regulations . The military (e.g. in the U.S. and U.K.) sometimes uses the term STANDING – rather than STANDARD – OPERATING PROCEDURE, because a military SOP refers to a unit's unique procedures, which are not necessarily standard to another unit. "Standard" could imply that there is one (standard) procedure to be used across all units. CONTENTS * 1 Clinical research and practice * 2 Health and safety * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CLINICAL RESEARCH AND PRACTICEIn clinical research, the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) defines SOPs as "detailed, written instructions to achieve uniformity of the performance of a specific function"
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Identifier
An IDENTIFIER is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols stand for (represent) ideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a CODE or ID CODE. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are often said to be ARBITRARY IDS; they are arbitrarily assigned and have no greater meaning
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Logo
A LOGO (abbreviation of LOGOTYPE, from Greek : λόγος logos "word" and τύπος typos "imprint") is a graphic mark, emblem , or symbol commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations, and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. There are purely graphic emblems, symbols, icons and logos, which are composed of the name of the organisation (a logotype or wordmark ). In the days of hot metal typesetting , a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type (e.g. "The" in ATF Garamond , as opposed to a ligature , which is two or more letters joined, but not forming a word). By extension, the term was also used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon . At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today often synonymous with its trademark or brand
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Trademark
A TRADEMARK, TRADE MARK, or TRADE-MARK is a recognizable sign , design , or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks . The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization , or any legal entity . A trademark may be located on a package , a label , a voucher , or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity , trademarks are often displayed on company buildings
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Acceptance Testing
In engineering and its various subdisciplines , ACCEPTANCE TESTING is a test conducted to determine if the requirements of a specification or contract are met. It may involve chemical tests , physical tests , or performance tests . In systems engineering it may involve black-box testing performed on a system (for example: a piece of software , lots of manufactured mechanical parts, or batches of chemical products) prior to its delivery. In software testing the ISTQB defines acceptance as: formal testing with respect to user needs, requirements, and business processes conducted to determine whether a system satisfies the acceptance criteria and to enable the user, customers or other authorized entity to determine whether or not to accept the system. Acceptance testing is also known as user acceptance testing (UAT), end-user testing, operational acceptance testing (OAT) or field (acceptance) testing
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Performance Test (assessment)
A TEST or EXAMINATION (informally, EXAM or EVALUATION) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge , skill , aptitude , physical fitness , or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs ). A test may be administered verbally, on paper, on a computer , or in a confined area that requires a test taker to physically perform a set of skills. Tests vary in style, rigor and requirements. For example, in a closed book test, a test taker is often required to rely upon memory to respond to specific items whereas in an open book test, a test taker may use one or more supplementary tools such as a reference book or calculator when responding to an item. A test may be administered formally or informally. An example of an informal test would be a reading test administered by a parent to a child. An example of a formal test would be a final examination administered by a teacher in a classroom or an I.Q. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic
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Acceptance Sampling
ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING uses statistical sampling to determine whether to accept or reject a production lot of material. It has been a common quality control technique used in industry. It is usually done as produc