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Tech Model Railroad Club
The Tech Model Railroad Club
Tech Model Railroad Club
(TMRC) is a student organization at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT). Historically it has been a wellspring of hacker culture.[1] Formed in 1946, its HO scale
HO scale
layout specializes in automated operation of model trains.Contents1 History 2 Vocabulary and neologisms 3 System layout 4 Current activities 5 Famous members 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The first meeting was organized by John Fitzallen Moore and Walter Marvin in November 1946.[2] Moore and Marvin had membership cards #0 and #1
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Back Orifice
Back Orifice (often shortened to BO) is a computer program designed for remote system administration. It enables a user to control a computer running the Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
operating system from a remote location.[1] The name is a play on words on Microsoft
Microsoft
BackOffice Server software. It can also control multiple computers at the same time using imaging. Back Orifice was designed with a client–server architecture.[2] A small and unobtrusive server program is installed on one machine, which is remotely manipulated by a client program with a graphical user interface on another computer system. The two components communicate with one another using the TCP and/or UDP network protocols. In a reference to the Leet
Leet
phenomenon, this program commonly runs on port 31337. The program debuted at DEF CON
DEF CON
6 on August 1, 1998
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Strowger Switch
The Strowger switch
Strowger switch
is the first commercially successful electromechanical stepping switch telephone exchange system. It was developed by the Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange Company
Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange Company
founded in 1891 by Almon Brown Strowger. Because of its operational characteristics it is also known as a step-by-step (SXS) switch.Contents1 History 2 Patent details2.1 Two-motion mechanism3 Development of the Strowger system 4 British deployment 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Strowger, an undertaker, was motivated to invent an automatic telephone exchange after having difficulties with the local telephone operators, one of whom was the wife of a competitor
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PIC Microcontroller
PIC (usually pronounced as "pick") is a family of microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650[1][2][3] originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to Peripheral Interface Controller,[4] then it was corrected as Programmable Intelligent Computer.[5] The first parts of the family were available in 1976; by 2013 the company had shipped more than twelve billion individual parts, used in a wide variety of embedded systems. Early models of PIC had read-only memory (ROM) or field-programmable EPROM
EPROM
for program storage, some with provision for erasing memory. All current models use flash memory for program storage, and newer models allow the PIC to reprogram itself. Program memory and data memory are separated. Data memory is 8-bit, 16-bit, and, in latest models, 32-bit wide. Program instructions vary in bit-count by family of PIC, and may be 12, 14, 16, or 24 bits long
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Seven-segment Display
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, basic calculators, and other electronic devices that display numerical information.[1]Contents1 Concept and visual structure 2 Implementations 3 History 4 Displaying letters 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksConcept and visual structure[edit]The individual segments of a seven-segment display16x8-grid showing the 128 states of a seven-segment displayThe common segment displays shown side by side: 7-segment, 9-segment, 14-segment and 16-segment displays.The seven elements of the display can be lit in different combinations to represent the Arabic numerals
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LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated.[5] When a suitable current is applied to the leads,[6][7] electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs
LEDs
are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern.[8] Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs
LEDs
emitted low-intensity infrared light.[9] Infrared
Infrared
LEDs
LEDs
are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics
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Scram
A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor. It is a type of kill switch. In commercial reactor operations, this type of shutdown is often referred to as a "SCRAM" at boiling water reactors (BWR), and as a "reactor trip" at pressurized water reactors (PWR).[1] In many cases, a SCRAM is part of the routine shutdown procedure as well. The term is usually cited as being an acronym for safety control rod axe man, which was supposedly coined by Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
when the world's first nuclear reactor was built under the spectator seating at the University of Chicago's Stagg Field. However, NRC Historian Tom Wellock suggests that the acronym was invented after the fact, and that it was first used as a reference to the slang, to 'scram' (to run)
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Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Linux
Linux
Linux
(/ˈlɪnəks/ ( listen) LIN-əks)[9][10] is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux
Linux
kernel. Typically, Linux
Linux
is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution (or distro for short) for both desktop and server use. The defining component of a Linux distribution
Linux distribution
is the Linux kernel,[11] an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds.[12][13][14] Many Linux
Linux
distributions use the word "Linux" in their name
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Tetris
Tetris
Tetris
(Russian: Тетрис [ˈtɛtrʲɪs]) is a tile-matching puzzle video game, originally designed and programmed by Russian game designer Alexey Pajitnov.[1] It was released on June 6, 1984,[2] while he was working for the Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre of the Academy of Science of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Moscow.[3] He derived its name from the Greek numerical prefix tetra- (all of the game's pieces contain four segments) and tennis, Pajitnov's favorite sport.[4][5] Tetris
Tetris
was the first entertainment software to be exported from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to the US, where it was published by Spectrum HoloByte for Commodore 64
Commodore 64
and IBM PC. The Tetris
Tetris
game is a popular use of tetrominoes, the four-element special case of polyominoes
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Holy Grail
The Holy Grail
Grail
is a vessel that serves as an important motif in Arthurian
Arthurian
literature. Different traditions describe it as a cup, dish or stone with miraculous powers that provide happiness, eternal youth or sustenance in infinite abundance
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Keypunch
A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator. Other devices included here for that same function include the gang punch, the pantograph punch, and the stamp For Jacquard looms, the resulting punched cards were joined together to form a paper tape, called a "chain", containing a program that, when read by a loom, directed its operation.[2] For Hollerith machines and other unit record machines the resulting punched cards contained data to be processed by those machines. For computers equipped with a punched card input/output device the resulting punched cards were either data or programs directing the computer's operation. Early Hollerith keypunches were manual devices. Later keypunches were electromechanical devices which combined several functions in one unit
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Minicomputer
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s[1][2] and sold for much less than mainframe[3] and mid-size computers from IBM
IBM
and its direct competitors. In a 1970 survey, the New York Times
New York Times
suggested a consensus definition of a minicomputer as a machine costing less than US$25,000, with an input-output device such as a teleprinter and at least four thousand words of memory, that is capable of running programs in a higher level language, such as Fortran
Fortran
or BASIC.[4] The class formed a distinct group with its own software architectures and operating systems. Minis were designed for control, instrumentation, human interaction, and communication switching as distinct from calculation and record keeping. Many were sold indirectly to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) for final end use application
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PDP-11
The PDP-11
PDP-11
is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series. In total, around 600,000 PDP-11s of all models were sold, making it one of DEC's most successful product lines. The PDP-11
PDP-11
is considered by some experts[1][2][3] to be the most popular minicomputer ever. The PDP-11
PDP-11
included a number of innovative features in its instruction set and additional general-purpose registers that made it much easier to program than earlier models in the series. Additionally, the innovative Unibus
Unibus
system allowed external devices to be easily interfaced to the system using direct memory access, opening the system to a wide variety of peripherals
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Rackmount
A 19-inch rack
19-inch rack
is a standardized frame or enclosure for mounting multiple electronic equipment modules. Each module has a front panel that is 19 inches (48.3 cm) wide. The 19-inch dimension includes the edges, or "ears", that protrude on each side which allow the module to be fastened to the rack frame with screws
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals. Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq
Compaq
was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq
Compaq
had less presence. However, Compaq
Compaq
had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own
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