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Taxonomy (general)
Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization or classification based on discrete sets. The word is also used as a count noun: a taxonomy, or taxonomic scheme, is a particular categorisation. The word finds its roots in the Greek language τάξις, taxis (meaning 'order', 'arrangement') and νόμος, nomos ('law' or 'science'). Originally, taxonomy referred only to the categorisation of organisms or a particular categorisation of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a categorisation of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a categorisation. Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which is dealing with the categorisation of parts of a whole. Many taxonomies have a hierarchical structure, but this is not a requirement
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Is-a
In knowledge representation, object-oriented programming and design (see object-oriented program architecture), is-a (is_a or is a) is a subsumption[1] relationship between abstractions (e.g. types, classes), wherein one class A is a subclass of another class B (and so B is a superclass of A). In other words, type A is a subtype of type B when A's specification implies B's specification. That is, any object (or class) that satisfies A's specification also satisfies B's specification, because B's specification is weaker.[2] The is-a relationship is to be contrasted with the has-a (has_a or has a) relationship between types (classes); confusing the relations has-a and is-a is a common error when designing a model (e.g., a computer program) of the real-world relationship between an object and its subordinate
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Peter Mark Roget

Peter Mark Roget LRCP FRS FRCP FGS FRAS (UK: /ˈrɒʒ/ US: /rˈʒ/;[1][2] 18 January 1779 – 12 September 1869) was a British physician, natural theologian, lexicographer and founding Secretary of The Portico Library[3]. He is best known for publishing, in 1852, the Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, a classified collection of related words
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Amy Brand
Amy Brand (born October 20, 1962) a leader in the field of scholarly communication and research information, is the current director of the MIT Press, a position she assumed in July 2015. Previously, Brand served as the assistant provost of faculty appointments and information at Harvard University, and as a vice president at Digital Science.[1] Amy Brand grew up in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, where she attended Barnard College. She moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1985 for graduate school, and has lived mainly in the Boston area since then.[2] Brand received a Bachelor of Arts in linguistics from Barnard College
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Knowledge Representation And Reasoning
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Knowledge representation incorporates findings from psychology[1] about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build. Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates findings from logic to automate various kinds of reasoning, such as the application of rules or the relations of sets and subsets. Examples of knowledge representation formalisms include semantic nets, systems architecture, frames, rules, and ontologies
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Indicative Conditional
In natural languages, an indicative conditional[1][2] is the logical operation given by statements of the form "If A then B". Unlike the material conditional, an indicative conditional does not have a stipulated definition. The philosophical literature on this operation is broad, and no clear consensus has been reached. The material conditional does not always function in accordance with everyday if-then reasoning. Therefore there are drawbacks with using the material conditional to represent if-then statements. One problem is that the material conditional allows implications to be true even when the antecedent is irrelevant to the consequent. For example, it's commonly accepted that the sun is made of plasma, on one hand, and that 3 is a prime number, on the other. The standard definition of implication allows us to conclude that, if the sun is made of plasma, then 3 is a prime number
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Linguistics

There was a shift of focus from historical and comparative linguistics to synchronic analysis in early 20th century. Structural analysis was improved by Leonard Bloomfield, Louis Hjelmslev; and Zellig Harris who also developed methods of discourse analysis. Functional analysis was developed by the Prague linguistic circle and André Martinet. As sound recording devices became commonplace in the 1960s, dialectal recordings were made and archived, and the audio-lingual method provided a technological solution to foreign language learning. The 1960s also saw a new rise of comparative linguistics: the study of language universals in linguistic typology
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