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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Charles Darwin
CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/ ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist , geologist and biologist , best known for his contributions to the science of evolution . He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace , introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection , in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding . Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book _ On the Origin of Species _, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species . By the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact
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August Eichler
AUGUST WILHELM EICHLER, also known under his Latinized name
Latinized name
, AUGUSTUS GUILIELMUS EICHLER (22 April 1839 – 2 March 1887), was a German botanist who developed a new system of classification of plants to reflect the concept of evolution . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Eichler System * 3 Works * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Neukirchen , Hesse
Hesse
, Eichler studied at the University of Marburg , Germany, and in 1871 became Professor of Botany at Technische Hochschule (Technical University) of Graz
Graz
and director of the botanical garden in that city. In 1872 he received an appointment at the University of Kiel , where he remained until 1878 when he became director of the herbarium at the University of Berlin
Berlin
. He died in Berlin
Berlin
on March 2, 1887 of leukaemia
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Adolf Engler
HEINRICH GUSTAV ADOLF ENGLER (25 March 1844 – 10 October 1930) was a German botanist . He is notable for his work on plant taxonomy and phytogeography , such as Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (The Natural Plant Families), edited with Karl A. E. von Prantl . Even now, his system of plant classification, the Engler system
Engler system
, is still used by many herbaria and is followed by writers of many manuals and floras . It is still the only system that treats all 'plants' (in the wider sense, algae to flowering plants ) in such depth. Engler published a prodigious number of taxonomic works. He used various artists to illustrate his books, notably Joseph Pohl (1864–1939), an illustrator who had served an apprenticeship as a wood-engraver. Pohl's skill drew Engler's attention, starting a collaboration of some 40 years. Pohl produced more than 33 000 drawings in 6 000 plates for Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien
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Bentham And Hooker
A taxonomic system , the BENTHAM & HOOKER SYSTEM for seed plants was published in : G. Bentham & J.D. Hooker (1862–1883). Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita (three volumes). CONTENTS * 1 Summary * 2 Families and orders in the Bentham & Hooker system * 2.1 Dicotyledonae
Dicotyledonae
* 2.2 Monocotyledons * 2.2.1 Series I. Microspermæ p. 448 * 2.2.2 Series II Epigynæ p. 636 * 2.2.3 Series III Coronarieæ p. 746 * 2.2.4 Series VI Calycineæ p. 860 * 2.2.5 Series V. Nudifloreæ p. 949 * 2.2.6 Series VI. Apocarpæ p.1001 * 2.2.7 Series VII. Glumaceæ p. 1019 * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography SUMMARYThe system recognises the following main groups: * Class DICOTYLEDONES * DICOTYLEDONUM POLYPETALE vol I * Series 1. THALAMIFLORÆ Series 2. DISCIFLORÆ Series 3. CALYCIFLORÆ * DICOTYLEDONES GAMOPETALÆ vol II * Series 1
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Species Problem
The SPECIES PROBLEM is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is. Such a definition is called a SPECIES CONCEPT; there are at least 26 recognized species concepts. A species concept that works well for sexually reproducing organisms such as birds is useless for species that reproduce asexually , such as bacteria. The scientific study of the species problem has been called MICROTAXONOMY. One common, but sometimes difficult, question is how best to decide which species an organism belongs to, because reproductively isolated groups may not be readily recognizable, and cryptic species may be present. There is a continuum from total reproductive isolation (no interbreeding) to panmixis , unlimited interbreeding. Populations can move forward or backwards along this continuum, at any point meeting the criteria for one or another species concept, and failing others
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Alpha Diversity
In ecology , ALPHA DIVERSITY (α-diversity) is the mean species diversity in sites or habitats at a local scale. The term was introduced by R. H. Whittaker together with the terms beta diversity (β-diversity) and gamma diversity (γ-diversity). Whittaker's idea was that the total species diversity in a landscape (gamma diversity) is determined by two different things, the mean species diversity in sites or habitats at a more local scale (alpha diversity) and the differentiation among those habitats (beta diversity )
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William Bertram Turrill
WILLIAM BERTRAM TURRILL FRS OBE (14 June 1890 - 15 December 1961) was an English botanist. W B Turrill's mathematical classification of leaf shapes CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Awards and honours * 4 Personal life * 5 Eponymy * 6 References * 7 External links EDUCATIONHe was born in Woodstock, Oxfordshire to William Banbury and Thirza Mary (née Homan) Turrill and educated at the Woodstock National School. CAREERTurrill worked in the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and was responsible for many innovations including a mathematical classification of leaf shapes. AWARDS AND HONOURSTurrill received the Order of the British Empire
Order of the British Empire
in 1955 and the gold medal of the Linnean Society in 1958
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Molecular Genetics
MOLECULAR GENETICS is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics . The study of chromosomes and gene expression of an organism can give insight into heredity , genetic variation , and mutations . This is useful in the study of developmental biology and in understanding and treating genetic diseases. CONTENTS* 1 Techniques * 1.1 Amplification * 1.2 Separation and detection * 2 Genetic screens * 3 Gene therapy * 4 The Human Genome Project * 5 See also * 6 Sources and notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links TECHNIQUESAMPLIFICATION Gene amplification is a procedure in which a certain gene or DNA sequence is replicated many times in a process called DNA replication
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Morphology (biology)
MORPHOLOGY is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape , structure , colour , pattern , size ), i.e. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or eidonomy ), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs , i.e. INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or anatomy ). This is in contrast to physiology , which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions of morphology * 3 Morphology and classification * 4 3D cell morphology:classification * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research"
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline
Population decline
, counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
, continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Great Chain Of Being
The GREAT CHAIN OF BEING is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God
God
. The chain starts with God
God
and progresses downward to angels, demons (fallen/renegade angels), stars, moon, kings, princes, nobles, commoners, wild animals, domesticated animals, trees, other plants, precious stones, precious metals and other minerals. The great chain of being (Latin : scala naturae, "ladder of being") is a concept derived from Plato
Plato
, Aristotle
Aristotle
(in his Historia animalium ), Plotinus and Proclus . Further developed during the Middle Ages, it reached full expression in early modern Neoplatonism
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Scholasticism
Catholicism portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal * v * t * e SCHOLASTICISM is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of and a departure from Christian monastic schools at the earliest European universities. The first institutions in the West to be considered universities were established in Italy, France, Spain, and England in the late 11th and 12th centuries for the study of arts , law , medicine , and theology , such as Schola Medica Salernitana , the University
University
of Bologna , and the University
University
of Paris
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Lesbos
LESBOS (/ˈlɛzbɒs/ , US : /ˈlɛzboʊs/ ; Greek : Λέσβος _Lesvos_, pronounced ), sometimes referred to as _Mytilini_ after its capital , is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea . It has an area of 1,633 km2 (631 sq mi) with 320 kilometres (199 miles) of coastline , making it the third largest island in Greece . It is separated from Turkey by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic/Mesolithic times was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period . Lesbos is also the name of a regional unit of the North Aegean region, within which Lesbos island is one of five governing islands. The others are Chios , Ikaria , Lemnos , and Samos
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα, _ Elláda _ ), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, _Ellinikí Dimokratía_ ), historically also known as HELLAS ( Ancient Greek : Ἑλλάς, _Hellás_ , modern pronunciation _Ellás_), is a country in southeastern Europe , with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki . Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa
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Bhagavata Purana
The _BHāGAVATA PURāṇA_ ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: भागवतपुराण; also _ŚRīMAD BHāGAVATA MAHā PURāṇA_, _ŚRīMAD BHāGAVATAM_ or _BHāGAVATA_) is one of Hinduism 's eighteen great Puranas (_Mahapuranas_, great histories). Composed in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and available in almost all Indian languages, it promotes _bhakti _ (devotion) to Krishna
Krishna
integrating themes from the Advaita (monism) philosophy of Adi Shankara . The _Bhagavata Purana_, like other puranas, discusses a wide range of topics including cosmology, genealogy, geography, mythology, legend, music, dance, yoga and culture. As it begins, the forces of evil have won a war between the benevolent _devas _ (deities) and evil _asuras _ (demons) and now rule the universe
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