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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Taxonomy (other)
TAXONOMY may refer to CONTENTS * 1 Science * 2 General * 3 Business and economics * 4 Education * 5 Safety * 6 Other * 7 See also SCIENCE* Taxonomy (biology) , a branch of science that encompasses the description, identification, nomenclature, and classification of organisms * Alpha taxonomy
Alpha taxonomy
, the description and basic classification of new species, subspecies, and other taxa* Linnaean taxonomy meaning either of: * the original classification scheme of Carl Linnæus * rank-based scientific classification as opposed to clade-based classification * Evolutionary taxonomy <
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Taxidermy
TAXIDERMY is the preserving of an animal's body via stuffing or mounting for the purpose of display or study. Animals are often, but not always, portrayed in a life-like state. The word taxidermy refers to the process of preserving the animal, but the word is also used to describe the end product, which are often called "mounts". The word taxidermy is derived from the Greek words "taxis" and "derma". Taxis means to "to move", and "derma" means "skin" (the dermis ). The word taxidermy translates to "arrangement of skin". Taxidermy
Taxidermy
is practiced primarily on vertebrates (mammals , birds , fish , reptiles , and less commonly on amphibians ) but can also be done to larger insects and arachnids under some circumstances. Taxidermy
Taxidermy
takes on a number of forms and purposes, including natural history museum displays, hunting trophies , study skins , and is sometimes used as a means to memorialize pets. A person who practices taxidermy is called a taxidermist. They may practice professionally for museums or as businesses catering to hunters and fishermen, or as amateurs, such as hobbyists , hunters , and fishermen . A taxidermist is aided by familiarity with anatomy , sculpture , painting , and tanning
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Scientific Classification (other)
SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION may refer to: * Chemical classification * Mathematical classification , construction of subsets into a set * The mathematical problem of assigning a label to an object based on a set of its attributes or features. * Taxonomy , the practice and science of categorizationCONTENTS * 1 Biology * 2 Astronomy * 3 See also BIOLOGY * Alpha taxonomy , the science of finding, describing and naming organisms * Biological classification * Cladistics , a newer way of classifying organisms, based solely on phylogeny * Linnaean taxonomy , the classic scientific classification system * Virus classification , naming and sorting virusesASTRONOMY * Galaxy morphological classification * Stellar classification SEE ALSO * Categorization , general * Classification of the sciences (Peirce) * Language classification * Systematic name This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scientific_classification_(other) additional terms may apply
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
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Taxis
A TAXIS (plural TAXES /ˈtæksiːz/ , from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement' ) is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food. Taxes are innate behavioural responses. A taxis differs from a tropism (turning response, often growth towards or away from a stimulus) in that in the case of taxis, the organism has motility and demonstrates guided movement towards or away from the stimulus source. It is sometimes distinguished from a kinesis , a non-directional change in activity in response to a stimulus. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Examples * 3 Terminology derived from taxis direction * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CLASSIFICATIONTaxes are classified based on the type of stimulus, and on whether the organism's response is to move towards or away from the stimulus. If the organism moves towards the stimulus, the taxis is positive, while if it moves away, the taxis is negative. For example, flagellate protozoans of the genus Euglena
Euglena
move towards a light source. This reaction or behaviour is called "positive phototaxis", since phototaxis refers to a response to light, and the organism is moving towards the stimulus
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Scientific Method
The SCIENTIFIC METHOD is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena , acquiring new knowledge , or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. The Oxford Dictionaries Online define the scientific method as "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment , and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses ". Experiments need to be designed to test hypotheses. The most important part of the scientific method is the experiment. The scientific method is a continuous process, which usually begins with observations about the natural world. Human beings are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear and often develop ideas (hypotheses) about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways, including making further observations about nature. In general, the strongest tests of hypotheses come from carefully controlled and replicated experiments that gather empirical data. Depending on how well the tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported a general theory may be developed
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Science
SCIENCE (from Latin _scientia_, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics . However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his _ Book of Optics _. While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks into air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, medieval Middle Easterns used practical and experimental observation to classify materials. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote . Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains —bacteria and archaea . Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from _taxonomy _) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping. Although preceded by Linnaeus 's system in _ Systema Naturae _ (10th edition, 1758) and unpublished work by Bernard and Antoine Laurent de Jussieu , the notion of a unit-based "natural system" of biological classification was first made widely available in 1805 through the publication, as the introduction to the third edition of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck 's _Flore françoise_, of Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
's _Principes élémentaires de botanique_, an exposition of a system for the "natural classification" of plants. Since then, systematists have striven to construct an accurate classification encompassing the diversity of life; today, a "good" or "useful" taxon is commonly taken to be one that reflects evolutionary relationships
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification , TAXONOMIC RANK is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon ) in a taxonomic hierarchy . Examples of taxonomic ranks are species , genus , family , order , class , phylum , kingdom , domain , etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two. Consider a particular species, the red fox , Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: its next rank, the genus Vulpes
Vulpes
, comprises all the 'true foxes'. Their closest relatives are in the immediately higher rank, the family Canidae , which includes dogs, wolves, jackals, all foxes, and other caniforms such as bears, badgers and seals; the next higher rank, the order Carnivora , includes feliforms and caniforms (lions, tigers, hyenas, wolverines, and all those mentioned above), plus other carnivorous mammals
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Linnaean Taxonomy
LINNAEAN TAXONOMY can mean either of two related concepts: * the particular form of biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus , as set forth in his _ Systema Naturae _ (1735) and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus
Linnaeus
there are three kingdoms, divided into _classes_, and they, in turn, into _orders_, _families_, _genera_ (singular: _genus_), and _species_ (singular: _species_), with an additional rank lower than species. * a term for rank-based classification of organisms, in general. That is, taxonomy in the traditional sense of the word: rank-based scientific classification . This term is especially used as opposed to cladistic systematics, which groups organisms into clades . It is attributed to Linnaeus, although he neither invented the concept of ranked classification (it goes back to Plato
Plato
and Aristotle
Aristotle
) nor gave it its present form
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Phylogenetics
In biology , PHYLOGENETICS /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/ (Greek : φυλή, φῦλον - _phylé_, _phylon_ = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - _genetikós_ = origin, source, birth) is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species , or populations ). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree ) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end," or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes. Taxonomy is the identification, naming and classification of organisms. It is usually richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline
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Cladistics
CLADISTICS (from Greek κλάδος, _klados_, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to a group's most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant ancestors. Therefore, members of a group are assumed to share a common history and are considered to be closely related. The techniques and nomenclature of cladistics have been applied to other disciplines. (See phylogenetic nomenclature .) CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Methodology * 3 Terminology for character states * 4 Terminology for taxa * 5 Criticism * 6 In disciplines other than biology * 7 See also * 8 Notes and references * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links HISTORY Willi Hennig 1972 Peter Chalmers Mitchell in 1920 Robert John Tillyard The original methods used in cladistic analysis and the school of taxonomy derived from the work of the German entomologist Willi Hennig , who referred to it as PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS (also the title of his 1966 book); the terms "cladistics" and "clade" were popularized by other researchers. Cladistics in the original sense refers to a particular set of methods used in phylogenetic analysis, although it is now sometimes used to refer to the whole field
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