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Targum
The targumim (singular: "targum", Hebrew: תרגום‬) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship.[1] The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root trgm, and the Akkadian term targummanu refers to "translator, interpreter".[2] It occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Mosaic Authorship
Mosaic authorship
Mosaic authorship
is the Jewish and Christian tradition that Moses
Moses
was the author of the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.[1] The books do not name an
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Cognate
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.[1] For example, the English word dish and the German word Tisch ("table"), are cognates because they both come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings. But, in most cases, there are some similar letters in the word. Some words sound similar, but don't come from the same root. These are called false cognates and are described in more detail below. In etymology, the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords. The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative".[2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Across languages 3 Within the same language 4 False cognates 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately
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Fraktur (script)
Fraktur
Fraktur
(German: [fʀakˈtuːɐ] ( listen)) is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand. The blackletter lines are broken up; that is, their forms contain many angles when compared to the smooth curves of the Antiqua (common) typefaces modeled after antique Roman square capitals and Carolingian minuscule. From this, Fraktur
Fraktur
is sometimes contrasted with the "Latin alphabet" in northern European texts, which is sometimes called the "German alphabet", simply being a typeface of the Latin alphabet
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Tunisia
Islam
Islam
(state religion; 99.1% Sunni[9] others (1%; including Christian, Jewish, Shia, Bahá'í)[9]Demonym TunisianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic[12][13]• PresidentBeji Caid Essebsi• Head of GovernmentYoussef ChahedLegislature Assembly of the Representatives of the PeopleFormation•  Husainid Dynasty
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Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
(Syriac: ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ‎ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian
Eastern Christian
traditions that employs Syriac in their liturgical rites
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Moreh Nevukim
The Guide for the Perplexed (Hebrew: מורה נבוכים‬, Moreh Nevukhim; Arabic: دلالة الحائرين‎, dalālat al-ḥā’irīn, דלאל̈ת אלחאירין) is one of the three major works of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, primarily known either as Maimonides or RAMBAM (Hebrew: רמב"ם‎. This work seeks to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Hebrew Bible theology, by finding rational explanations for many events in the text.It was written in Judeo-Arabic in the form of a three part letter to his student, Rabbi Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta, the son of Rabbi Judah, and is the main source of the Rambam's philosophical views, as opposed to his opinions on Jewish law
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Anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism
is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.[1] It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.[2] Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions and natural forces like seasons and the weather. Both have ancient roots as storytelling and artistic devices, and most cultures have traditional fables with anthropomorphized animals as characters
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Translation
Translation
Translation
is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.[1] The English language draws a terminological distinction (not all languages do) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the appearance of writing within a language community. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages
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Lection
A lection, also called the lesson, is a reading from scripture in liturgy. History[edit] The custom of reading the books of Moses in the synagogues on Sabbath is a very ancient one. Since the prophetic books were written after the books of Moses, readings from them began later, and were common at the time of Jesus. This element in synagogue worship was taken over with others into the Christian divine service, as may be gathered from passages in the gospels such as St Luke 4:16–20 and 16:29. During early Christianity, readings began to be made from the writings of the Apostles
Apostles
and evangelists as the New Testament
New Testament
canon developed
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Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, abbreviated as BHS or rarely BH4, is an edition of the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
as preserved in the Leningrad Codex, and supplemented by masoretic and text-critical notes. It is the fourth edition in the Biblia Hebraica series started by Rudolf Kittel
Rudolf Kittel
and is published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart.Contents1 Publishing history 2 BHS Fascicles and Editors 3 A print edition of the Leningrad Codex 4 Contents 5 Book order 6 Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: A Reader's Edition 7 Criticism 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 LiteraturePublishing history[edit] bhs is a revision of the third edition of the Biblia Hebraica, edited by Paul Kahle, the first printed Bible based on the Leningrad Codex. The footnotes are completely revised
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Quadriliteral
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root). Such abstract consonantal roots are used in the formation of actual words by adding the vowels and non-root consonants (or "transfixes") which go with a particular morphological category around the root consonants, in an appropriate way, generally following specific patterns
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Semitic Root
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root). Such abstract consonantal roots are used in the formation of actual words by adding the vowels and non-root consonants (or "transfixes") which go with a particular morphological category around the root consonants, in an appropriate way, generally following specific patterns
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal parliamentary republic•&#
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Schoyen Collection
The Schøyen Collection is the largest private manuscript collection in the world, mostly located in Oslo
Oslo
and London. Formed in the 20th century by Martin Schøyen, it comprises manuscripts of global provenance, spanning 5,000 years of history. It contains more than 13,000 manuscript items; the oldest is about 5,300 years old. There are manuscripts from 134 different countries and territories, representing 120 distinct languages.[1] The variety of manuscripts—geographic, linguistic, textual and material—even more than its size makes the Schøyen Collection unique. The collection has a website with many items illustrated and described. The provenance of the various cuneiform materials held by the Schøyen Collection remains subject to controversy.[2] Notable manuscripts[edit] Among the most notable items of the collection are the following:MS 1 (ca
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Book Of Ezra
The Book
Book
of Ezra
Ezra
is a book of the Hebrew Bible; which formerly included the Book of Nehemiah
Book of Nehemiah
in a single book, commonly distinguished in scholarship as Ezra–Nehemiah
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