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Tar
Tar
Tar
is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar
Tar
can be produced from coal, wood, petroleum, or peat.[1] Production and trade in pine-derived tar was a major contributor in the economies of Northern Europe[2] and Colonial America. Its main use was in preserving wooden sailing vessels against rot. The largest user was the Royal Navy. Demand for tar declined with the advent of iron and steel ships. Tar-like products can also be produced from other forms of organic matter, such as peat. Mineral products resembling tar can be produced from fossil hydrocarbons, such as petroleum. Coal
Coal
tar is produced from coal as a byproduct of coke production
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Candy
Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient[citation needed]. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy. Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied. Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar or sugar substitutes. Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are usually made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy also depends upon how people treat the food. Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are normally eaten casually, often with the fingers, as a snack between meals. Each culture has its own ideas of what constitutes candy rather than dessert
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Turpentine
Turpentine
Turpentine
(also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps[1]) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines
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Microbicide
A microbicide is any biocidal compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes, such as viruses or bacteria. One example is wood tar.[1] See also[edit]Antibiotics Bactericide Disinfectant Fungicide Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseasesReferences[edit]^ Paulus, W (1991). "Microbicides for the protection of materials: yesterday, today and tomorrow". Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 8. v t eMicrobicides for sexually transmitted diseasestypesRectal microbicide Vaginal microbicideproductsNonoxynol-9 Tenofovir PRO 2000 BufferGelOrganizationsInternational Rectal Microbicide Advocates International Partnership for Microbicides Global Campaign for Microbicides Microbicides Development Programme Microbicide Trials NetworkClinical trialsCAPRISA 004 VOICEThis antiinfective drug article is a stub
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Birch Bark
Birch
Birch
bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula. The strong and water-resistant cardboard-like bark can be easily cut, bent, and sewn, which has made it a valuable building, crafting, and writing material, since pre-historic times. Even today, birch bark remains a popular type of wood for various handicrafts and arts. Birch
Birch
bark also contains substances of medicinal and chemical interest. Some of those products (such as betulin) also have fungicidal properties that help preserve bark artifacts, as well as food preserved in bark containers.A Russian birch bark letter (14th century)Contents1 Collection and storage 2 Working 3 Uses 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksCollection and storage[edit] Removing birch bark from live trees is harmful to tree health and should be avoided
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Viscoelasticity
Viscoelasticity
Viscoelasticity
is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation. Viscous materials, like honey, resist shear flow and strain linearly with time when a stress is applied. Elastic materials strain when stretched and quickly return to their original state once the stress is removed. Viscoelastic materials have elements of both of these properties and, as such, exhibit time-dependent strain
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Deciduous
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity"[1] and "tending to fall off",[2] in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit. Generally, the term deciduous means "the dropping of a part that is no longer needed" and the "falling away [of a part] after its purpose is finished"
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Leather
Leather
Leather
is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry. Leather
Leather
is used to make various goods, including clothing (especially footwear), in bookbinding, and as a furniture covering
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Methanol
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). Methanol
Methanol
acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. Today, industrial methanol is produced in a catalytic process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Methanol
Methanol
is the simplest alcohol, being only a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group. It is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol).[11] However, unlike ethanol, methanol is highly toxic and unfit for consumption. At room temperature, it is a polar liquid. It is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol
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Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis
is a thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere such as a vacuum gas.[1] It involves the change of chemical composition and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating". Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis
is most commonly applied to the treatment of organic materials. It is one of the processes involved in charring wood, starting at 200–300 °C (390–570 °F).[2] In general, pyrolysis of organic substances produces volatile products and leaves a solid residue enriched in carbon, char
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Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has higher viscosity than water.[2] Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving at different velocities. In simple terms, viscosity means friction between the molecules of fluid. When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving
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Organic Matter
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments. It is matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.[1] Organic molecules can also be made by chemical reactions that don't involve life.[2] Basic structures are created from cellulose, tannin, cutin, and lignin, along with other various proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Tar Tunnel
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. The central portions of a rapid transit network are usually in tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication cables, as well as connecting buildings for convenient passage of people and equipment. Secret tunnels are built for military purposes, or by civilians for smuggling of weapons, contraband, or people. Special tunnels, such as wildlife crossings, are built to allow wildlife to cross human-made barriers safely
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Öland
Öland
Öland
(Swedish pronunciation: [ˈøːland] ( listen), known in Latin
Latin
as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden. Öland
Öland
has an area of 1,342 square kilometres (518 square miles) and is located in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
just off the coast of Småland
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Boat
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of sizes designed to float, plane, work or travel on water. Small boats are typically found on inland waterways (e.g. rivers and lakes) or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed for operation as a ship in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard another vessel (a ship). An older tradition is that a ship has a weather deck fully enclosing the hull space, while a boat lacks a full weather deck; this is suggested as the reason why submarines are referred to as 'boats' rather than 'ships', as a cylindrical hull has interior decks but no weatherdeck. Another definition is a vessel that can be lifted out of the water. Some definitions do not make a distinction in size, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet (300 m) long on the Great Lakes are called oreboats
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