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Taphrinomycotina
Archaeorhizomycetes Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes TaphrinomycetesThe Taphrinomycotina
Taphrinomycotina
are one of three subdivisions constituting the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
(fungi that form their spores in a sac-like ascus) and is more or less synonymous with the slightly older invalid name Archiascomycetes (sometimes spelled Archaeascomycetes; archea = ancient). Recent molecular studies suggest that the group is monophyletic and basal to the rest of the Ascomycota.[2][3] The major taxa are Schizosaccharomycetes, Taphrinomycetes, Neolectomycetes, and Pneumocystis. The Schizosaccharomycetes are the yeasts (e.g. Schizosaccharomyces) that reproduce by fission rather than budding, unlike most other yeasts, many of which are in the subdivision Saccharomycotina. The Taphrinomycetes
Taphrinomycetes
are dimorphic plant parasites (e.g
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Cystobasidiomycetes
Cystobasidiales Erythrobasidiales Naohideales Genera incertae sedis: Cyrenella - SakaguchiaThe Cystobasidiomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota. The class contains three orders: the Cystobasidiales, the Erythrobasidiales, and the Naohideales. References[edit]^ Bauer R, Begerow D, Sampaio JP, Weiss M, Oberwinkler F (2006). "The simple-septate basidiomycetes: a synopsis". Mycological Progress. 5 (1): 41–66. doi:10.1007/s11557-006-0502-0. External links[edit] Data related to Cystobasidiomycetes at WikispeciesTaxon identifiersWd: Q136779 EoL: 11979969 EPPO: 1CYSBL Fungorum: 501480 GBIF: 152 iNaturalist: 152040 ITIS: 936310 MycoBank: 501480 NCBI: 432005 WoRMS: 437453This Basidiomycota-related article is a stub
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Opisthokont
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") or Choanozoa
Choanozoa
are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms,[5] together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom").[6] The opisthokonts, previously called the "Fungi/ Metazoa
Metazoa
group",[7] are generally recognized as a clade
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Hyphae
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, “web”) is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.[1] In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium.Contents1 Structure 2 Growth 3 Behavior 4 Modifications 5 Types5.1 Classification based on cell division 5.2 Classification based on cell wall and overall form 5.3 Classification based on refractive appearance6 See also 7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] A hypha consists of one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall. In most fungi, hyphae are divided into cells by internal cross-walls called "septa" (singular septum). Septa are usually perforated by pores large enough for ribosomes, mitochondria and sometimes nuclei to flow between cells. The major structural polymer in fungal cell walls is typically chitin, in contrast to plants and oomycetes that have cellulosic cell walls
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Phenotypic Switching
Phenotypic switching is switching between multiple cellular morphologies. David R. Soll described two such systems: the first high frequency switching system between several morphological stages and a second high frequency switching system between opaque and white cells. The latter is an epigenetic switching system[1][2] Phenotypic switching in Candida albicans is often used to refer to the epigenetic white to opaque switching system. C. albicans needs this switch for sexual mating.[3] Next to the two above mentioned switching systems many other switching systems are known in C. albicans.[4] A second example occurs in Melanoma, where malignantly transformed pigment cells switch back-and-forth between phenotypes of proliferation and invasion in response to changing microenvironments, driving metastatic progression.[5][6][7] See also[edit]PolyphenismReferences[edit]^ Zordan, R. E.; Galgoczy, D. J.; Johnson, A. D. (2006)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Schizosaccharomyces
Schizosaccharomyces is a genus of fission yeasts. The most well-studied species is S. pombe.[1][2] At present four Schizosaccharomyces species have been described (S. pombe, S. japonicus, S. octosporus and S. cryophilus).[3] Like the distantly related Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. pombe is a significant model organism in the study of eukaryotic cell biology. It is particularly useful in evolutionary studies because it is thought to have diverged from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae lineage between 300 million and 1 billion years ago, and thus provides an evolutionarily distant comparison.[4] See also[edit]Yeast in winemakingReferences[edit]^ Hoffman CS; Wood V; Fantes PA. (Oct 2015). "An Ancient Yeast for Young Geneticists: A Primer on the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Model System". Genetics. 201 (2): 403–23. doi:10.1534/genetics.115.181503. PMC 4596657 . PMID 26447128.  ^ Fantes PA; Hoffman CS (2016)
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Nature (journal)
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.[1] It was ranked the world's most cited scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal
Journal
Citation Reports and is ascribed an impact factor of 40.137 , making it one of the world's top academic journals.[2][3] It is one of the few remaining academic journals that publishes original research across a wide range of scientific fields.[3][4] Research
Research
scientists are the primary audience for the journal, but summaries and accompanying articles are intended to make many of the most important papers understandable to scientists in other fields and the educated public. Towards the front of each issue are editorials, news and feature articles on issues of general interest to scientists, including current affairs, science funding, business, scientific ethics and research breakthroughs. There are also sections on books and arts
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Molecular Phylogeny
Molecular phylogenetics (/məˈlɛkjʊlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/[1][2]) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA
DNA
sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree. Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of molecular systematics, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography.Contents1 History 2 Techniques and applications 3 Theoretical background 4 Limitations of molecular systematics 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Further information: History of molecular evolution The theoretical frameworks for molecular systematics were laid in the 1960s in the works of Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, and Walter M
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Spore
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.[1] Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula.[2] Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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Pneumocystis Pneumonia
B59 ICD9 = 136.3DiseasesDB 10160MedlinePlus 000671eMedicine med/1850MeSH D011020[edit on Wikidata] Pneumocystis pneumonia
Pneumocystis pneumonia
(PCP) is a form of pneumonia, caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.[1] Pneumocystis pneumonia
Pneumocystis pneumonia
is not commonly found in the lungs of healthy people, but, being a source of opportunistic infection, it can cause a lung infection in people with a weak immune system
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota
Eukaryota
(represented by the Australian green tree frog, left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus, middle) and Archaea
Archaea
(represented by Sulfolobus, right).The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio[1]), also superkingdom or empire,[2] is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.[1] The first two are all prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms whose cells have no nucleus
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Basidia
A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic sporangium (or spore-producing structure) found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. The presence of basidia is one of the main characteristic features of the Basidiomycota. A basidium usually bears four sexual spores called basidiospores; occasionally the number may be two or even eight. In a typical basidium, each basidiospore is borne at the tip of a narrow prong or horn called a sterigma (pl. sterigmata), and is forcibly discharged upon maturity. The word basidium literally means little pedestal, from the way in which the basidium supports the spores. However, some biologists suggest that the structure more closely resembles a club
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Geoglossomycetes
Geoglossaceae
Geoglossaceae
is a family of fungi in the order Geoglossales, class Geoglossomycetes. These fungi are broadly known as earth tongues. The ascocarps of most species in the family Geoglossaceae
Geoglossaceae
are terrestrial and are generally small, dark in color, and club-shaped with a height of 2–8 cm. The ascospores are typically light-brown to dark-brown and are often multiseptate
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