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Tanka People
The Tankas (simplified Chinese: 疍家; traditional Chinese: 蜑家; pinyin: Dànjiā; Cantonese
Cantonese
Yale: Daahngā) or boat people are an ethnic subgroup in Southern China[1] who have traditionally lived on junks in coastal parts of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, as well as Hong Kong, and Macau. Though many now live onshore, some from the older generations still live on their boats and pursue their traditional livelihood of fishing. Historically, the Tankas were considered to be outcasts. Since they were boat people who lived by the sea, they were sometimes referred to as "sea gypsies" by the Chinese and British. Tanka origins can be traced back to the native ethnic minorities of southern China
China
who may have taken refuge on the sea and gradually assimilated into Han culture
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Nankai University
Coordinates: 39°06′04″N 117°09′53″E / 39.10111°N 117.16472°E / 39.10111; 117.16472Nankai University南开大学Motto 允公允能,日新月异[1]Motto in EnglishDedication to Public Interests, Acquisition of All-round Capability, Aspiration for Progress with Each Passing Day[1]Type National PublicEstablished 1919President Cao XuetaoAcademic staff4,336Undergraduates 12,873Postgraduates 11,432 graduatesLocation Tianjin, ChinaCampus urbanColors          Website www.nankai.edu.cn Nankai University
Nankai University
(NKU; simplified Chinese: 南开大学; traditional Chinese: 南開大學; pinyin: Nánkāi Dàxué) is a public research university located in Tianjin, China. It was founded in 1919, by prominent educators Yan Xiu
Yan Xiu
and Zhang Boling
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The University Of Hong Kong
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(often abbreviated as HKU, sometimes known informally as Hong Kong
Hong Kong
University) is a public research university located in Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Founded in 1911, its origins can be traced back to the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
College of Medicine for Chinese which was founded in 1887, it is the oldest tertiary institution in Hong Kong.[5] It is often cited as one of the most prestigious universities in Asia.[6] Today, the University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
is organised into 10 academic faculties with English as the language of instruction. It exhibits strength in scholarly research and education of accounting & finance,[7] biomedicine,[8] dentistry, education,[9] humanities, law,[10] linguistics,[11] political sciences,[12][13] and social sciences
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Southern China
South China
China
or Southern China
China
(simplified Chinese: 华南; traditional Chinese: 華南; pinyin: huá nán) is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context. In normal parlance and geography, it refers to the region south of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]The Qinling Huaihe Line
Qinling Huaihe Line
separates China
China
into its Northern and Southern regionsContents1 Definitions 2 Administrative divisions 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Further information: Northern and southern China In the broadest sense, Southern China
China
can denote the entire portion of the country south of the line demarcated by the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
and Huai River
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Junk (ship)
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today. Junks were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century AD and developed rapidly during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279).[1][2] They evolved in the later dynasties, and were used throughout Asia for extensive ocean voyages. They were found, and in lesser numbers are still found, throughout South-East Asia and India, but primarily in China. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats. The term junk may be used to cover many kinds of boat—ocean-going, cargo-carrying, pleasure boats, live-aboards
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Outcast (person)
An outcast is someone who is rejected or 'cast out', as from home or society,[1] or in some way excluded, looked down upon, or ignored. In common English speech an outcast may be anyone who does not fit in with normal society, which can contribute to a sense of isolation.Contents1 History 2 Exiles 3 In the Bible 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Pariahs of Madras a German engraving, 1870sIn Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
the Athenians had a procedure known as "ostracism" in which all citizens could write a person's name on a shard of broken pottery (called ostraka) and later place it in a large container in a public location. If an individual were to have his or her name written a sufficient number of times, they would be subject to "ostracism" and banished from the city for ten years
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Gypsies
The Romani (also spelled Romany /ˈroʊməni/, /ˈrɒ-/), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe
Europe
and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent,[55][56][57] from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab
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Vietnam
Coordinates: 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)FlagEmblemMotto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness"Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca[a] (English: "Army March")Location of  Vietnam  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital Hanoi 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850Largest city
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Boat People
Vietnamese boat people
Vietnamese boat people
(Vietnamese: Thuyền nhân Việt Nam) were refugees who fled Vietnam
Vietnam
by boat and ship after the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, especially during 1978 and 1979, but continuing until the early 1990s. The term is also often used generically to refer to all the Vietnamese (about 2 million) who left their country by any means between 1975 and 1995 (see Indochina refugee crisis). This article uses "boat people" to apply only to those who fled Vietnam
Vietnam
by boat. The number of boat people leaving Vietnam
Vietnam
and arriving safely in another country totalled almost 800,000 between 1975 and 1995. Many of the refugees failed to survive the passage, facing danger from pirates, over-crowded boats, and storms
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Hong Kong Museum Of History
The Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Museum
Museum
of History (Chinese: 香港歷史博物館) is a museum which preserves Hong Kong's historical and cultural heritage. It is located next to the
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Foochow Romanized
Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; Chinese: 平話字) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (Chinese: 福州話羅馬字), is a Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
for the Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
of Eastern Min
Eastern Min
adopted in the middle of the 19th century by Western missionaries. It had varied at different times, and became standardized in the 1890s
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Cantonese Language
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Min Chinese
Min or Miin[a] (simplified Chinese: 闽语; traditional Chinese: 閩語; pinyin: Mǐn yǔ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bân gú; BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian
Fujian
as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong
Guangdong
(around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou
Leizhou
peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago
Zhoushan archipelago
off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin
Jiangyin
City in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, and Taiwan. The name is derived from the Min River in Fujian
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Baiyue
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous non-Chinese peoples who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze
Yangtze
basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.[1] Meacham (1996:93) notes that, during the Zhou and Han dynasties, the Yue lived in a vast territory from Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to Yunnan,[2] while Barlow (1997:2) indicates that the Luoyue occupied the southwest Guangxi
Guangxi
and north Vietnam.[3] The Han shu (漢書) describes the lands of Yue as stretching from the regions of Kuaiji(會稽) to Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi
( 交趾).[4] In the Warring States period, the word "Yue" referred to the State of Yue
State of Yue
in Zhejiang
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