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Takhar
TAKHAR or TAAHKARR (in Serer and Cangin ) is a demi-god in the Serer religion worshipped by many Serers (an ethnic group found in Senegal
Senegal
, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
). Takhar
Takhar
is the god of justice and vengeance in Serer religion and worshipped at the foot of certain trees in the forest deemed to be sacred . The Serer priestly class play a crucial role in the evokation of the demi-god and the implementation of its laws that devotees adhere to. CONTENTS* 1 Worship * 1.1 Place of worship * 1.2 Priests of Takhar
Takhar
* 2 Patronage * 3 References * 4 Bibliography WORSHIPThe Serer people worship Takhar
Takhar
in order to appeal to him against the injuries, oppression or evil magic inflicted by other
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Forest
A FOREST is a large area dominated by trees . Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. According to the widely used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered four billion hectares (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed across the globe. Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth's biosphere , and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass. Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones : boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes
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Sacred
SACRED means revered due to SANCTITY and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers. From an anthropological or atheistic perspective, the religious view of the sacred is an emic perspective on a culture's collection of thoughts and practices that function as a basis for the community's social structure. Objects are often considered sacred if used for spiritual purposes, such as the worship or service of gods . The property is often ascribed to objects (a "sacred artifact" that is venerated and blessed ), or places ("sacred ground")
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Tassili N'Ajjer
TASSILI N\'AJJER (Berber : Tasili n Ajjer, Arabic : طاسيلي ناجر‎‎, English: Plateau of the Rivers) is a heavily eroded sandstone rock formation in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau that encompasses southeastern Algeria
Algeria
, western Libya
Libya
and northern Niger
Niger
. It features over 300 rock arches, dense clusters of eroded sandstone rock pillars, and steep cliffs and gorges, where water pools permanently at the surface. Tassili n'Ajjer
Tassili n'Ajjer
covers an area of over 72,000 km2 (28,000 sq mi)
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Trees
In botany , a TREE is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk , supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth , plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In looser definitions, the taller palms , tree ferns , bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world. A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Revenge
REVENGE is a form of justice usually assumed to be enacted in the absence of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence . Often, revenge is defined as being a harmful action against a person or group in response to a grievance, be it real or perceived. It is used to punish a wrong by going outside of the law. This is because the individual taking revenge feels as though the law will not do justice. Revenge
Revenge
is also known as PAYBACK , RETRIBUTION , RETALIATION, or VENGEANCE; it may be characterized as a form of justice (not to be confused with retributive justice ), an altruistic action which enforces societal or moral justice aside from the legal system. Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
described it as a kind of "wild justice" that "does... offend the law putteth the law out of office"
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Gambia
THE GAMBIA (/ˈɡæmbi.ə/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF THE GAMBIA, is a country in West Africa
West Africa
that is entirely surrounded by Senegal
Senegal
except for its coastline on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
at its western end. It is the smallest country in mainland Africa
Africa
. The Gambia is situated on either side of the Gambia River , the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Its area is 10,689 square kilometres (4,127 sq mi) with a population of 1,882,450 at the April 2013 census (provisional). Banjul
Banjul
is the Gambian capital, and the largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama
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Mauritania
Coordinates : 20°N 12°W / 20°N 12°W / 20; -12 Islamic Republic
Republic
of Mauritania الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah République islamique de Mauritanie (French ) Flag Seal MOTTO: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic) "Honor, Fraternity, Justice" ANTHEM: نشيد وطني موريتاني " National anthem of Mauritania "<
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Justice
JUSTICE is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture . An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke
John Locke
argued for the theory of natural law . Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality
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New Moon
In astronomy, the NEW MOON is the first phase of the Moon
Moon
, when its orbit is not seen from the Earth; it is at this moment when the Moon and the Sun
Sun
have the same ecliptical longitude . The Moon
Moon
is not visible at this time except when it is seen in silhouette during a solar eclipse when it is illuminated by earthshine . See the article on phases of the Moon
Moon
for further details. The original meaning of the phrase new moon, sometimes still used in non-astronomical contexts, was the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. This takes place over the western horizon in a brief period between sunset and moonset. A LUNATION or synodic month is the mean (average) time from one new moon to the next. In the J2000.0 epoch, the average length of a lunation is 29.530588 days (or 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 3 seconds)
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Demi-god
The term DEMIGOD or DEMI-GOD can refer to a minor deity , a mortal or immortal who is the offspring of a god and a human being, or a figure who has attained divine status after death. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Classical * 3 Modern use * 4 Hinduism
Hinduism
* 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGYThe English term "demigod" is a calque of the Latin semideus, "half-god", which was coined by the Roman poet Ovid
Ovid
in reference to less important gods, such as dryads . CLASSICALIn the ancient Greek and Roman world, the word did not have a consistent definition and was rarely used. The earliest recorded use of the term is by the archaic Greek poets Homer
Homer
and Hesiod
Hesiod
. Both describe dead heroes as hemitheoi, or "half gods". In these cases, the word did not mean that these figures had one parent who was divine and one who was mortal
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Cekeen Tumulus
The TUMULI OF CEKEEN are located in the Diourbel Department
Diourbel Department
of the Diourbel Region . The Diourbel Region and the city of Diourbel were part of the precolonial Kingdom of Baol , now part of present-day Senegal
Senegal
. CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 World Heritage Status * 3 See also * 4 References PURPOSEIn this area, a tumulus was used as a burial mound for chiefs. A deceased chief would be joined by other members of his court along with important objects such as furniture and other implements. In this case, he and his escort would be situated in the chief's hut, whereupon the hut was buried with soil and rocks. Thousands of such tumuli exist in Senegal, but it is in Cekeen that the biggest and most densely scattered occur
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Air
The ATMOSPHERE OF EARTH is the layer of gases , commonly known as AIR, that surrounds the planet Earth
Earth
and is retained by Earth\'s gravity . The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
protects life on Earth
Earth
by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation , warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect ), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation ). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen , 20.95% oxygen , 0.93% argon , 0.04% carbon dioxide , and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor , on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres
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Cattle
CATTLE—colloquially COWS —are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates . They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae
Bovinae
, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos
Bos
, and are most commonly classified collectively as BOS TAURUS. Cattle
Cattle
are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal ), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products , and as draft animals (oxen or bullocks that pull carts , plows and other implements). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel . In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning . Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in southeast Turkey. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome
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Poultry
POULTRY (/ˌpoʊltriː/ ) are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs , their meat or their feathers . These birds are most typically members of the superorder Galloanserae (fowl) , especially the order Galliformes (which includes chickens , quails and turkeys ). Poultry
Poultry
also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs ) but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game . The word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal. The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago. This may have originally been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but later involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity
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Millet
MILLETS (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses , widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India
India
, Mali
Mali
, Nigeria
Nigeria
, and Niger
Niger
), with 97% of millet production in developing countries . The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl millet , which is an important crop in India
India
and parts of Africa. Finger millet , proso millet , and foxtail millet are also important crop species. Millets have been important food staples in human history, particularly in Asia and Africa. They have been in cultivation in East Asia for the last 10,000 years
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