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Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia . Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN. The island of Taiwan , formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning , the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty , the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War . While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty . Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists , and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949
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Taiwan (other)
TAIWAN , officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia centered on the island of the same name
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Flag Of Taiwan
The FLAG OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA is a red flag with a navy blue canton bearing a white sun with twelve triangular rays. In Chinese, the flag is commonly described as BLUE SKY, WHITE SUN, AND A WHOLLY RED EARTH to reflect its attributes. The flag was first used in mainland China as the Navy flag in 1912 and was made the official national flag of the Republic of China (ROC) in 1928 by the Kuomintang (KMT). It was enshrined in the sixth article of the Constitution of the Republic of China when it was promulgated in 1947. The flag is no longer used in mainland China after the People\'s Republic of China was founded in 1949. As the islands of Taiwan and Penghu were under Japanese rule until 1945, the flag was not in use until after the ROC took control of the two territories in 1945. The flag is now mostly used within Taiwan, Penghu , Kinmen , Matsu and other outlying islands where the ROC relocated to in 1949, after its defeat in the Chinese Civil War
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National Emblem Of Taiwan
The BLUE SKY WITH A WHITE SUN (Chinese : 青天白日旗; pinyin : _Qīng tīan bái rì qí_) serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT), the canton of the flag of the Republic of China , the national emblem of the Republic of China and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy . In the "Blue Sky with a White Sun" symbol, the twelve rays of the white Sun representing the twelve months and the twelve traditional Chinese hours (時辰; _shíchen_), each of which corresponds to two modern hours and symbolizes the spirit of progress. CONTENTS * 1 History of the Blue Sky White Sun design * 2 National emblem and history * 3 Situation during Dang Guo period * 4 Use in other countries * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY OF THE BLUE SKY WHITE SUN DESIGNThe "Blue Sky with a White Sun" flag was originally designed by Lu Haodong , a martyr of the Republican revolution . He presented his design to represent the revolutionary army at the inauguration of the Society for Regenerating China , an anti-Qing society in Hong Kong , on February 21, 1895. During the Wuchang Uprising in 1911 that heralded the Republic of China, the various revolutionary armies had different flags
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National Anthem Of The Republic Of China
The current NATIONAL ANTHEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA (Chinese : 中華民國國歌; pinyin : _Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúogē_) was adopted in 1937; previously, the Song to the Auspicious Cloud was used as the official anthem. The current national anthem remains as the national anthem of the Republic of China government in Taiwan. In mainland China , the anthem serves a historical role . The national anthem of the People\'s Republic of China is the "March of the Volunteers ". The anthem's words are adapted from a 1924 speech by Sun Yat-sen , via the anthem of the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) in 1937. The lyrics relate to how the vision and hopes of a new nation and its people can be achieved and maintained. Informally, the song is sometimes known as SAN MIN CHU-I from its opening line which references the Three Principles of the People (_Sanmin Zhuyi_), but this name is never used in formal or official occasions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Lyrics * 2.1 English translations * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe text of was the collaboration between several Kuomintang (KMT) party members: Hu Hanmin , Tai Chi-tao , Liao Zhongkai , and Shao Yuanchong . The text debuted on July 16, 1924, as the opening of a speech by Sun Yat-sen at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy
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National Flag Anthem Of The Republic Of China
The NATIONAL FLAG ANTHEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA (also known as the "National Banner Song" unofficially) (Chinese : 中華民國國旗歌; pinyin : Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē) is played during the raising and lowering of the Flag of Republic of China
Republic of China
. This song is also played at international sporting events such as the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
. Vocal version of the National Banner Song CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Use * 3 Lyrics * 3.1 Original * 3.2 For use as Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
in Olympic Events * 4 Dispute of the author of lyrics * 5 External links * 6 References ORIGINAfter the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Anthem became the de facto National Anthem of the Republic of China
Republic of China
in 1930, the Ministry of Education had invited submissions for a new official national anthem. The music composed by Huang Tzu was eventually chosen in 1936, but the Nationalist Government refused to adopt it as the national anthem. As a compromise, the National Anthem remained unchanged, while Huang Tzu's music was adopted as the National Flag Anthem, with lyrics written in Classical Chinese by Tai Chi-tao , who had also contributed to the lyrics of the National Anthem
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Free Area Of The Republic Of China
The FREE AREA OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA is a legal and political description referring to the territories under the actual control by the Government of the Republic of China
Government of the Republic of China
(ROC), consisting of the island groups of Taiwan
Taiwan
, Penghu
Penghu
, Kinmen
Kinmen
, Matsu and some minor islands . As the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
is the main component of the whole area, it is therefore also referred to as the "TAIWAN AREA OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA" or simply the "TAIWAN AREA". The term "Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma" is also essentially equivalent except that it only refers to the four main islands of the region - Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, to the exclusion of the South China
China
Sea area possessions. The term is opposed to "mainland area of the Republic of China", which reflects the territory that was lost to the Chinese Communist Party following the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and on which a separate state, the People\'s Republic of China
China
(now commonly known as "China") was founded in 1949. This term is used in the "Additional Articles to the Constitution of the Republic of China
China
"
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Geography Of Taiwan
TAIWAN, formerly known as FORMOSA (from Portuguese : _Ilha Formosa_, "beautiful island", Portuguese pronunciation: ) is an island in East Asia ; located some 180 kilometres (112 miles) off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait . It has an area of 35,883 km2 (13,855 sq mi) and spans the Tropic of Cancer . The East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest. Taiwan proper makes up 99% of the territory of the Free Area controlled by the Republic of China since the ROC lost its mainland China territory in the Chinese Civil War and fled to the island in 1949; the ROC itself is commonly referred to as simply "Taiwan". Taiwan is a tilted fault block , characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting mostly of five rugged mountain ranges parallel to the east coast, and the flat to gently rolling plains of the western third, where the majority of Taiwan's population reside. There are several peaks over 3,500 m, the highest being Yu Shan at 3,952 metres (12,966 ft), making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island . The tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, and the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them highly destructive
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Penghu
The PENGHU or PESCADORES ISLANDS are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait . The largest city is Magong , located on the largest island, which is also named PENGHU. Covering an area of 141 square kilometers (54 sq mi), the archipelago collectively forms PENGHU COUNTY of Republic of China
Republic of China
(known as Taiwan), and is the second smallest county, after Lienchiang . CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 2.1 Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
* 2.2 Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* 2.3 Empire of Japan
Japan
* 2.4 Republic of China
Republic of China
* 3 Government * 3.1 Administrative divisions * 3.2 Politics * 4 Political dispute * 5 Economy * 6 Demographics * 7 Education * 8 Energy * 9 Tourism * 10 Transport * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 13.1 Citations * 13.2 Works cited * 14 Further reading * 15 External links NAMEThe traditional English name of the islands, the Pescadores, comes from the Portuguese name _Ilhas dos Pescadores_ ("Fishermen Islands"). The Modern European Portuguese pronunciation is but, in English, it is typically closer to Classical Portuguese 's: /ˌpɛskəˈdɔːrɪz/ or /-iz/ . The islands have also been called _Pehoe_
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Kinmen
KINMEN or QUEMOY (/kɪˈmɔɪ/ ; see also "Names " section below), officially KINMEN COUNTY, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China , including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen , Wuqiu and several surrounding islets . It is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian Province of the Republic of China . Only about two kilometres (1.2 mi) east of the mainland city of Xiamen , its strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan , the People\'s Republic of China (PRC) has continuously claimed Kinmen as part of its own Fujian Province's Quanzhou prefecture-level city
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Matsu Islands
The MATSU ISLANDS (Chinese : 馬祖列島; pinyin : _Mǎzǔ Lièdǎo_; Fuzhou dialect : Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently, Chinese : 馬祖群島; pinyin : _Mǎzǔ Qúndǎo_; Fuzhou dialect : 馬祖島 Mā-cū-dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as LIENCHIANG COUNTY (連江縣; pinyin : _Liánjiāng Xiàn_; Lièng-gŏng-gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China (ROC). It is the smallest county in Taiwan . Only a small area of what is historically Lienchiang County is under the control of the ROC. The People\'s Republic of China (PRC) administers the part of the historical county on mainland China as Lianjiang County , which claims the entire archipelago to be its MAZU TOWNSHIP (馬祖鄉; pinyin : _Mǎzǔ Xiāng_; Mā-cū-hiŏng). Kinmen is the other archipelago along the coast of Fujian that is controlled by the ROC
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Pratas Islands
The PRATAS ISLANDS, also known as the DONGSHA ISLANDS, are an atoll in the north of the South China Sea
South China Sea
consisting of three islets about 340 kilometers (211 mi) southeast of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. Excluding their associated EEZ and territorial waters, the islets comprise about 240 ha (590 acres), including 64 ha (160 acres) of lagoon area. The People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
claims the islands, but the Republic of China
China
(ROC) controls them and has declared them a national park . The main island of the group—PRATAS ISLAND—is the largest of the South China
China
Sea Islands . CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 3 Geography * 4 Settlement * 4.1 Pratas Island
Pratas Island
landmark * 4.2 Pratas Island
Pratas Island
stone tablet * 4.3 Da Wang temple * 4.4 Symbol of national sovereignty * 4.5 Measuring memorial stone tablet * 4.6 Triangulation bench mark * 4.7 Library * 4.8 Post office * 4.9 Fishermen\'s service station * 5 Government * 6 Energy * 7 Transportation * 8 See also * 9 Citations and references * 10 External links NAMEThe English name of the islands derives from the Portuguese _Ilhas das Pratas_ ("Silver Plate Islands"), which was given to the atoll in the 16th century owing to its round shape
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Taiping Island
TAIPING ISLAND, better known internationally as ITU ABA ISLAND, and also known by various other names, is the largest of the naturally occurring Spratly Islands in the South China Sea . The island is elliptical in shape being 1.4 kilometres (0.87 mi) in length and 0.4 kilometres (0.25 mi) in width, with an area of 46 hectares (110 acres). It is part of the Tizard Bank (Zheng He Reefs; 鄭和群礁). The runway of the Taiping Island Airport is easily the most prominent feature on the island, running its entire length. The island is administered by the Republic of China (ROC/Taiwan), as part of Cijin , Kaohsiung . It is also claimed by the People\'s Republic of China , the Philippines and Vietnam . In 2016, in a ruling by an arbitral tribunal in the Permanent Court of Arbitration in the case brought by the Philippines against China , the tribunal classified Itu Aba as a "rock" under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (and therefore not entitled to a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone and continental shelf). ROC/ Taiwan rejected this ruling. The nearby Zhongzhou Reef is also under the control of the ROC/Taiwan
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