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Taíno People
The Taíno
Taíno
people were one of the most populous of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean. At the time of European contact in the late 15th century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Trinidad, Jamaica, Hispaniola
Hispaniola
( Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico. Cuba’s largest indigenous group was the Ciboney
Ciboney
(or Siboney) inhabiting the central part of the island, while other Taínos dominated the eastern part. In the Greater Antilles, the northern Lesser Antilles, and The Bahamas, they were known as the Lucayans.[1] They spoke the Taíno language
Taíno language
(an Arawakan language), which contained traces of earlier languages which were supplanted by Taíno
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Island Carib
The Island Caribs, also known as the Kalinago[2] or simply Caribs, are an indigenous Caribbean people of the Lesser Antilles. They may have descended from the Mainland Caribs
Mainland Caribs
(Kalina) of South America, but they spoke an unrelated language known as Island Carib. At the time of Spanish contact, the Caribs were one of the dominant groups in the Caribbean, which owes its name to them. They lived throughout the Windward Islands, Dominica, and possibly the southern Leeward Islands. Historically, it was thought their ancestors were mainland Caribs, known as the Igneri. The Igneri had conquered the islands from their previous inhabitants, However, linguistic and archaeological evidence disputes the notion of a mass emigration and conquest; the Island Carib language
Island Carib language
appears not to have been Cariban, but Arawakan
Arawakan
like that of their neighbors, the Taíno
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Smallpox
Smallpox
Smallpox
was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.[7] The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977 and the World Health Organization certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980.[10] The risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies.[6][11] Often those who survive have extensive scarring of their skin and some are left blind.[6] The initial symptoms of the disease include fever and vomiting.[5] This is then followed by formation of sores in
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Havana
Havana
Havana
(/həˈvænə/; Spanish: La Habana, [la aˈβana] ( listen)) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.[3] The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants,[2][3] and it spans a total of 728.26 km2 (281.18 sq mi) – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, and the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean
Caribbean
region.[2][4] The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Marimelena, Guanabacoa
Guanabacoa
and Atarés
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Batabanó, Cuba
Batabanó is a municipality and town in the Mayabeque Province
Mayabeque Province
of Cuba. It was founded in 1688.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Demographics 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] The municipality is crossed by a number of small rivers, among them Río Guanabo, Río San Felipe, Río Pacheco, Río San Juan and Río Santa Gertrudis. A marina is located in the port of Batabanó (Surgidero de Batabanó). This port is dated back to the 16th century and functioned as the south port of Havana for the coastline navigation to other Cuban cities before the railroad connected all the country in the 19th century
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Camagüey
Camagüey
Camagüey
(Spanish pronunciation: [kamaˈɣwej]) is a city and municipality in central Cuba
Cuba
and is the nation's third largest city with more than 321,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of the Camagüey Province.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Culture 4 Demographics 5 Infrastructure 6 Education6.1 Instituto Pre-Universitario Vocacional de Ciencias Exactas 6.2 Other high schools 6.3 University7 Climate 8 Transport 9 Sport 10 Gallery 11 Notable residents 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External linksHistory[edit] See also: Timeline of Camagüey Camagüey
Camagüey
was founded as Santa María del Puerto del Príncipe in 1514 by Spanish colonists led by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar
at a location now known as Nuevitas
Nuevitas
on the northern coast
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Bayamo
Bayamo
Bayamo
is the capital city of the Granma Province
Granma Province
of Cuba
Cuba
and one of the largest cities in the Oriente region.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Demographics 4 Transportation 5 Notable residents 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOverview[edit] The community of Bayamo
Bayamo
lies on a plain by the Bayamo
Bayamo
River. It is affected by the violent Bayamo
Bayamo
wind. One of the most important education institutions in the province is the University of Granma. History[edit] Bayamo
Bayamo
was the second of the seven cities founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar; it was established on November 5, 1513.[4] Francisco Iznaga,[5] a Basque landowner in the western portion of Cuba
Cuba
during the first 30 years of the colonization of Cuba, was elected mayor in 1540
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Spaniards
Spain
Spain
Nationals 41,539,400[1] (for a total population of 47,059,533) Hundreds of millions with Spanish ancestors in the Americas especially in the Hispanic
Hispanic
colonies Nationals Abroad : 2,183,043[2]
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Mestizo
Mestizo
Mestizo
(/mɛˈstiːzoʊ, mɪ-/;[1] Spanish: [mesˈtiθo], American Spanish: [-ˈtiso]) is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and to a lesser extent, in the Philippines
Philippines
which originally meant a person of combined European and American Indian descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire's control of their American colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Latin America, Mestizo
Mestizo
has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as Mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry, and with the term "Indian" being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate indigenous ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc
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Infectious Diseases
Infection
Infection
is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.[1][2] Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system
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Immunity (medical)
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.Contents1 Innate and adaptive 2 History of theories 3 Passive3.1 Naturally acquired 3.2 Artificially acquired 3.3 Transfer of activated T-cells4 Active4.1 Naturally acquired 4.2 Artificially acquired5 See also 6 References 7 External linksInnate and adaptive[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Scheme of a Fc receptorImmunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components
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Epidemic
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.[1][2] Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by several factors including a change in the ecology of the host population (e.g. increased stress or increase in the density of a vector species), a genetic change in the pathogen reservoir or the introduction of an emerging pathogen to a host population (by movement of pathogen or host)
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Taíno (other)
The Taíno
Taíno
were an indigenous people of the Caribbean. Taino may also refer to:The Taíno
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War
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
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Daniel Garrison Brinton
Daniel Garrison Brinton
Daniel Garrison Brinton
(May 13, 1837 – July 31, 1899) was an American archaeologist and ethnologist.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Brinton was born in Thornbury Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. After graduating from Yale University
Yale University
in 1858, Brinton studied at Jefferson Medical College
Jefferson Medical College
for two years and spent the next year travelling in Europe. He continued his studies at Paris
Paris
and Heidelberg. From 1862 to 1865, during the American Civil War, he was a surgeon in the Union army, acting during 1864-1865 as surgeon-in-charge of the U.S. Army general hospital at Quincy, Illinois.[1] Brinton was sun-stroked at Missionary Ridge
Missionary Ridge
(Third Battle of Chattanooga) and was never again able to travel in very hot weathers
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