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TTIP
The TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP (TTIP) was a proposed trade agreement between the European Union
European Union
and the United States , with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic growth. TTIP was considered a companion agreement to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) . As of January 2017 , the negotiations were halted indefinitely in late 2016, although speculations were made about resuming the talks. According to Karel de Gucht
Karel de Gucht
, European Commissioner for Trade between 2010 and 2014, the TTIP is the largest bilateral trade initiative ever negotiated, not only because it involves the two largest economies in the world but also "because of its potential global reach in setting an example for future partners and agreements". Its main three broad areas are market access, specific regulation, and broader rules and principles and modes of co-operation
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Max Otte
MAX OTTE (full name MATTHIAS OTTE born 7 October 1964 in Plettenberg , North Rhine-Westphalia ) is a German economist and independent investment fund manager. He is a professor for general and international business administration at the University of Applied Sciences Worms and head of the Cologne-based IFVE Institut für Vermögensentwicklung GmbH (IFVE: a privately owned institute for asset management), which he founded in 2003. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Books * 2.1 A Rising Middle Power? German Foreign Policy in Transformation, 1988–1998 * 2.2 Investieren statt Sparen (investing rather than saving) * 2.3 Der Crash kommt. Die neue Weltwirtschaftskrise und wie Sie sich darauf vorbereiten * 3 Publications * 4 References * 5 External links CAREERMax Otte obtained his Abitur (university entrance qualification) at Albert-Schweitzer-Gymnasium Plettenberg in 1983
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European Social Model
The EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL is a common vision many European states have for a society that combines economic growth with high living standards and good working conditions . Historian Tony Judt has argued that the European social model "binds Europe together" in contrast to the 'American way of life '. European states do not all use a single social model , but welfare states in Europe do share several broad characteristics. These generally include a commitment to full employment , social protections for all citizens, social inclusion , and democracy. Examples common among European countries include universal health care , free higher education, strong labor protections and regulations, and generous welfare programs in areas such as unemployment insurance, retirement pensions, and public housing. The Treaty of the European Community set out several social objectives: promotion of employment, improved living and working conditions ..
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Direct Democracy
DIRECT DEMOCRACY (also known as PURE DEMOCRACY) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracies, which are representative democracies
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World Trade Organization
The WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade . The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement , signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Trade
(GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world. The WTO deals with regulation of trade between participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments :fol.9–10 and ratified by their parliaments. Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round (1986–1994)
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Bank Regulation
BANK REGULATION is a form of government regulation which subjects banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, designed to create market transparency between banking institutions and the individuals and corporations with whom they conduct business, among other things. Given the interconnectedness of the banking industry and the reliance that the national (and global) economy hold on banks, it is important for regulatory agencies to maintain control over the standardized practices of these institutions. Supporters of such regulation often base their arguments on the "too big to fail " notion. This holds that many financial institutions (particularly investment banks with a commercial arm) hold too much control over the economy to fail without enormous consequences. This is the premise for government bailouts , in which government financial assistance is provided to banks or other financial institutions who appear to be on the brink of collapse
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Environmental Law
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, also known as environmental AND NATURAL RESOURCES law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties , statutes , regulations , common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment . The core environmental law regimes address environmental pollution . A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now strongly influenced by environmental legal principles, focus on the management of specific natural resources , such as forests, minerals, or fisheries. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not fit neatly into either category, but are nonetheless important components of environmental law
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Non-governmental Organization
A NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) is a nonprofit organization that is independent of governments and international governmental organizations. They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II
World War II
, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development , particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 3.7 million. Russia has 277,000 NGOs
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The Independent
THE INDEPENDENT is a British online newspaper . Established in 1986 as an independent national morning newspaper published in London
London
, it was controlled by Tony O\'Reilly 's Independent News "> created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", and challenging both The Guardian
The Guardian
for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent
The Independent
reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989
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Big Business
BIG BUSINESS involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial or business activities. As a term, it describes activities that run from "huge transactions" to the more general "doing big things". The concept first arose in a symbolic sense after 1880 in connection with the combination movement that began in American business at that time. United States corporations that fall into the category of "big business" as of 2015 include ExxonMobil , Walmart
Walmart
, Google
Google
, Microsoft
Microsoft
, Apple , General Electric
General Electric
, General Motors
General Motors
, Citigroup
Citigroup
, Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
and JPMorgan Chase
JPMorgan Chase

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Food Safety
FOOD SAFETY is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation , and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness . This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potential health hazards . In this way food safety often overlaps with food defense to prevent harm to consumers. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling , food hygiene , food additives and pesticide residues , as well as policies on biotechnology and food and guidelines for the management of governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods
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EU–US Open Skies Agreement
The EU–US OPEN SKIES AGREEMENT is an open skies air transport agreement between the European Union
European Union
and the United States. The agreement allows any airline of the European Union
European Union
and any airline of the United States to fly between any point in the European Union
European Union
and any point in the United States. Airlines of the United States are also allowed to fly between points in the European Union. Airlines of the European Union
European Union
are also allowed to fly between the United States and non-EU countries like Switzerland
Switzerland
. The treaty disappointed European airlines as it was tilted in favour of United States airlines: while they are allowed to operate intra-EU flights, European airlines are not permitted to operate intra-US flights nor are they allowed to purchase a controlling stake in a US operator
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Transatlantic Economic Council
The TRANSATLANTIC ECONOMIC COUNCIL (TEC) is a body set up between the United States
United States
and European Union
European Union
to direct economic cooperation between the two economies. CONTENTS * 1 Establishment and chairmanship * 2 Work * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ESTABLISHMENT AND CHAIRMANSHIPIt was established by an agreement signed on 30 April 2007 at the White House
White House
by U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
, President of the European Council Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(also German Chancellor ) and EU Commission President José Manuel Barroso
José Manuel Barroso
. The Council is co-chaired by an EU and a U.S
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Cold War
The COLD WAR was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States
United States
, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine , a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed . The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars
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European Community
The EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome
Treaty of Rome
of 1957. Upon the formation of the European Union
European Union
(EU) in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the EUROPEAN COMMUNITY (EC). In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist. The Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union , among its six founding members : Belgium
Belgium
, France
France
, Italy
Italy
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and West Germany
West Germany

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Coordinates : 50°52′34″N 4°25′19″E / 50.87611°N 4.42194°E / 50.87611; 4.42194 North Atlantic Treaty Organization Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord Logo Member states of NATO
Member states of NATO
ABBREVIATION NATO, OTAN MOTTO Animus in
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