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T.E. Lawrence
First World War * Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
* Siege of Medina * Battle of Aqaba * Capture of Damascus
Capture of Damascus
* Battle of Megiddo AWARDS Companion of the Order of the Bath Distinguished Service Order Knight of the Legion of Honour (France) Croix de guerre (France) THOMAS EDWARD LAWRENCE, CB , DSO (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist , military officer, diplomat, and writer. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
during the First World War . The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as LAWRENCE OF ARABIA—a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities. Lawrence was born out of wedlock in Tremadog
Tremadog
, Wales, in August 1888 to Thomas Chapman (who became, in 1914, Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet ), an Anglo-Irish nobleman from County Westmeath
County Westmeath
, and Sarah Junner, a Scottish governess who was herself illegitimate. Chapman had left his wife and first family in Ireland to live with Junner, and they called themselves Mr and Mrs Lawrence
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Lawrence Of Arabia (film)
LAWRENCE OF ARABIA is a 1962 epic historical drama film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence . It was directed by David Lean and produced by Sam Spiegel through his British company Horizon Pictures , with the screenplay by Robert Bolt and Michael Wilson . The film stars Peter O\'Toole in the title role. It is widely considered one of the greatest and most influential films in the history of cinema. The dramatic score by Maurice Jarre and the Super Panavision 70 cinematography by Freddie Young are also highly acclaimed. The film was nominated for ten Oscars at the 35th Academy Awards in 1963; it won seven in total: Best Picture , Best Director , Best Original Score , Best Cinematography (Color) , Best Art Direction (Color) , Best Film Editing and Best Sound Mixing . It also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Drama and the BAFTA Awards for Best Film and Outstanding British Film . The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in the Arabian Peninsula during World War I , in particular his attacks on Aqaba and Damascus and his involvement in the Arab National Council . Its themes include Lawrence's emotional struggles with the personal violence inherent in war, his own identity, and his divided allegiance between his native Britain and its army and his new-found comrades within the Arabian desert tribes
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Lawrence Of Arabia
First World War
First World War
* Arab Revolt * Siege of Medina * Battle of Aqaba * Capture of Damascus * Battle of Megiddo AWARDS Companion of the Order of the Bath Distinguished Service Order Knight of the Legion of Honour (France) Croix de guerre (France) THOMAS EDWARD LAWRENCE, CB , DSO (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist , military officer, diplomat, and writer. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
during the First World War
First World War
. The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as LAWRENCE OF ARABIA—a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities. Lawrence was born out of wedlock in Tremadog , Wales, in August 1888 to Thomas Chapman (who became, in 1914, Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet ), an Anglo-Irish nobleman from County Westmeath , and Sarah Junner, a Scottish governess who was herself illegitimate. Chapman had left his wife and first family in Ireland to live with Junner, and they called themselves Mr and Mrs Lawrence
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Companion Of The Order Of The Bath
The MOST HONOURABLE ORDER OF THE BATH (formerly the MOST HONOURABLE MILITARY ORDER OF THE BATH) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight , which involved bathing (as a symbol of purification) as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not (as is commonly believed) revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign (currently Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
), the Great Master (currently The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
), and three Classes of members: * KNIGHT GRAND CROSS (GCB ) or DAME GRAND CROSS (GCB ) * KNIGHT COMMANDER (KCB ) or DAME COMMANDER (DCB ) * COMPANION (CB )Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had only a single class, KNIGHT COMPANION (KB), which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now usually senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members
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Distinguished Service Order
The DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ORDER (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations , awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. CONTENTS * 1 Creation * 2 Modern era * 3 Nomenclature * 4 Description * 5 Notable recipients * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links CREATIONInstituted on 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria in a Royal Warrant published in _ The London Gazette _ on 9 November, the first DSOs awarded were dated 25 November 1886. It is typically awarded to officers ranked major (or its equivalent) or higher, but the honour has sometimes been awarded to especially valorous junior officers . During the First World War , 8,981 DSOs were awarded, each award being announced in The London Gazette. The order was established for rewarding individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war
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Tremadog
TREMADOG (formerly TREMADOC) is a village in the community of Porthmadog
Porthmadog
, in Gwynedd
Gwynedd
, north west Wales
Wales
; about 1 km north of the town of Porthmadog. It was a planned settlement , founded by William Madocks , who bought the land in 1798. The centre of Tremadog
Tremadog
was complete by 1811 and remains substantially unaltered. Map of Cardigan Bay View of Tremadog
Tremadog
bay, from the vicinity of Harlech Panorama T. E. Lawrence 's birthplace. The house was originally called Gorphwysfa ("place of rest") before being given the English name of Woodlands. Later it reverted to the original name, albeit using modern Welsh orthography, as Gorffwysfa, but this has more recently been changed to Lawrence House. William Madocks
William Madocks
, the designer and builder of most of Tremadog
Tremadog
Tremadog
Tremadog
hosted an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1872
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Bovington Camp
BOVINGTON CAMP (/ˈbɒvɪŋtən/ ) is a British Army military base in Dorset , England. Together with Lulworth Camp it forms part of Bovington Garrison. The garrison is home to The Armour Centre and contains two barracks complexes and two forest and heathland training areas that support Phase Two training for soldiers of the Royal Armoured Corps and trade training for the Household Cavalry Regiment as well as other armored units. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Resident units * 3 Training * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe camps at Bovington and Lulworth were originally established in 1899 as an infantry training area and ranges. In 1916, they became training camps for the Heavy Branch of the Machine Gun Corps which relocated from Norfolk. The Heavy Branch was responsible for the operation of the tank in the British Army . In 1917 the Heavy Branch split from the Machine Gun Corps to become the Tank Corps, with the Depot and Central Schools being based at Bovington. T. E. Lawrence , better known as "Lawrence of Arabia", died at the camp after he was fatally injured in a motorcycle accident when he swerved to avoid two boys riding their bikes. In 1937 the Central Schools became the Armoured Fighting Vehicles School, with driving and maintenance training at Bovington and gunnery at Lulworth
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St Nicholas, Moreton
ST NICHOLAS is a Church of England parish church at Moreton , Dorset, England. It is known for its thirteen windows, engraved by the poet and artist Sir Laurence Whistler . T. E. Lawrence was buried in the separate churchyard. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Windows * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe church's dedication was changed in 1490, to St Nicholas
St Nicholas
having previously been dedicated to St Magnus Martyr . The church was rebuilt in the 18th century, reusing its medieval foundations. The rebuilding was financed by the Frampton family, who lived in the nearby manor house. The adventurer T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), who died in 1935, is buried in the separate churchyard. He was a cousin of the Frampton family and had been a frequent visitor to their home, Okers Wood House. Lawrence's mother arranged with the Framptons to have him buried in their family plot in the separate burial ground of St Nicholas' Church. Mourners included Winston and Clementine Churchill , E. M. Forster
E. M. Forster
, and Lawrence's youngest brother Arnold . In 1940, the church suffered a direct hit from a German bomb, and was largely destroyed. It was rebuilt over the following decade, but the stained glass windows were replaced with plain green glass, which was not liked by the congregation
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Kingdom Of Hejaz
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant , a type of monarchy * Kingdom (biology) , a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God , a foundational concept in the three Abrahamic religionsKINGDOM may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Popular culture * 2.1 Music * 3 Other * 4 See also PEOPLE * Kingdom (director) (born 1975), Japanese adult video director * Park Yong-Wook
Park Yong-Wook
, also known as "Kingdom", a professional Korean StarCraft player * Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
(1806–1859), English engineerPOPULAR CULTURE * _Kingdoms_ (board game) , a board game by Reiner Knizia * _Kingdom_ (comics) , a comic series by Dan Abnett and Richard Elson published in the weekly _2000 AD_ * _Kingdom_ (manga) , a 2006 Japanese manga * _Kingdom_ (UK TV series) , a 2007 British television drama starring Stephen Fry * _Kingdom_ (U.S
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British Army
The BRITISH ARMY is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom. As of 2017, the British Army
Army
comprises just over 80,000 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 26,500 trained reserve (part-time) personnel. The modern British Army
Army
traces back to 1660, when it was known as the English Army; the term "British Army" was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between England and Scotland. Although all members of the British Army
Army
are expected to swear (or affirm) allegiance to Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army . Therefore, Parliament approves the Army
Army
by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years. The Army
Army
is administered by the Ministry of Defence and commanded by the Chief of the General Staff . The British Army
Army
has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers , including the Seven Years\' War , the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars . Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers
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Royal Air Force
The ROYAL AIR FORCE (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force . Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history , in particular, playing a large part in the Second World War
Second World War
where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
. The RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence (MoD), which are to "provide the capabilities needed: to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and overseas territories, including against terrorism; to support the Government’s foreign policy objectives particularly in promoting international peace and security". The RAF describe its mission statement as "... An _agile_, _adaptable_ and _capable_ Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power , which guides its strategy
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Colonel (United Kingdom)
COLONEL (COL) is a rank of the British Army and Royal Marines , ranking below brigadier , and above lieutenant colonel . British colonels are not usually field commanders; typically they serve as staff officers between field commands at battalion and brigade level. The insignia is two diamond-shaped pips (properly called "Bath Stars" ) below a crown. The crown has varied in the past with different monarchs; the current Queen\'s reign has used St Edward\'s Crown . The rank is equivalent to captain in the Royal Navy and group captain in the Royal Air Force. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Ceremonial usage * 4 Royal Air Force * 5 Historical insignia * 6 Current insignia * 7 See also * 8 References ETYMOLOGYThe rank of colonel was popularized by the tercios that were employed in the Spanish Army during the 16th and 17th centuries. General Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba divided his troops in to coronelías (meaning "column of soldiers" from the Latin , columnella or "small column" ). These units were led by a coronel. This command structure and its titles were soon adopted as colonello in early modern Italian and in Middle French as coronel. The modern English pronunciation of the word is derived from the French variant
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Aircraftman
AIRCRAFTMAN (AC) or AIRCRAFTWOMAN (ACW) is the lowest rank in the British Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) and the air forces of several other Commonwealth countries. Aircraftman ranks below leading aircraftman and has a NATO
NATO
rank code of OR-1. It is now a training rank only and no airmen in productive service hold this rank. Aircraftmen do not wear any rank insignia. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
* 3 Royal Canadian Air Force * 4 Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
* 5 Royal New Zealand Air Force * 6 Footnotes * 7 See also HISTORYThe rank was introduced to the RAF in January 1919, replacing the rank prefixes of "Air Mechanic", "Private" and "Clerk" that had been introduced under Air Memorandum No 1 in March 1918. There were three grades: Leading Aircraftman
Leading Aircraftman
(LAC), Aircraftman 1st Class (AC1) and Aircraftman 2nd Class. A similar grading existed for junior ratings in the Royal Navy. The lowest grade was an AC2; also colloquially known as an "AC plonk". With effect from 1 April 1964, the gradings of AC1 and AC2 were abolished, with "Aircraftman" becoming the entry rank. ROYAL AIR FORCEIn RAF slang, aircraftmen are sometimes called "erks"
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First World War
Allied victory (exception: Russian defeat) * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. (more... ) BELLIGERENTSALLIED POWERS France
France
British Empire
British Empire
Russia
Russia
(until 1917) Serbia Montenegro Belgium
Belgium
Japan Italy
Italy
(1915–18) Portugal (1916–18) Romania (1916–18) Hejaz (1916–18) United States
United States
(1917–18) Brazil
Brazil
(1917–18) Greece (1917–18) Siam
Siam
(1917–18) ..._and others_ CENTRAL POWERS German Empire
German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria (1915–18) ..._and co-belligerents_ COMMANDERS AND LEADERSALLIED LEADERS Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
Raymond Poincaré H. H. Asquith
H. H

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Arab Revolt
The ARAB REVOLT (Arabic : الثورة العربية‎‎, _al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya_; Turkish : _Arap İsyanı_) or GREAT ARAB REVOLT (Arabic : الثورة العربية الكبرى‎‎, _al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā_) was officially initiated by Sherif Hussein bin Ali at Mecca on 10 June 1916 (9 Sha\'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina
Medina
starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab
Arab
state spanning from Aleppo
Aleppo
in Syria
Syria
to Aden
Aden
in Yemen
Yemen
. Though the Sherifian revolt has tended to be regarded as a revolt rooted in a secular Arab
Arab
nationalist sentiment the Sherif did not present it in those terms; rather, he accused the Young Turks of violating the sacred tenets of Islam and called Arab
Arab
Muslims to sacred rebellion against the ostensibly "impious" Ottoman government. Contrarily, Turks accused rebelling tribes of betraying the Muslim Caliphate during a campaign against imperialist powers which were trying to divide and govern the Muslim lands. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Forces * 3 Conflicts * 3.1 Prelude * 3.2 1916: T. E
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Siege Of Medina
Kingdom of Hejaz British Empire Ottoman Empire