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System Of Measurement
A SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other. Systems of measurement have historically been important, regulated and defined for the purposes of science and commerce . Systems of measurement in modern use include the metric system , the imperial system , and United States
United States
customary units . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Current practice * 2 Metric system * 3 Imperial and US customary units * 4 Natural units * 5 Non-standard units * 5.1 Area * 5.2 Energy
Energy
* 6 Units of currency * 7 Historical systems of measurement * 7.1 Africa * 7.2 Asia * 7.3 Europe * 7.4 North America * 7.5 Oceania * 7.6 South America * 8 See also * 8.1 Conversion tables * 9 Notes and references * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links HISTORY Main article: History of measurement The French Revolution gave rise to the metric system , and this has spread around the world, replacing most customary units of measure. In most systems, length (distance), mass , and time are _base quantities_. Later science developments showed that either electric charge or electric current could be added to extend the set of base quantities by which many other metrological units could be easily defined. (However, electrical units are not necessary for such a set
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Units Of Measurement
A UNIT OF MEASUREMENT is a definite magnitude of a quantity , defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same quantity. Any other value of that quantity can be expressed as a simple multiple of the unit of measurement. For example, length is a physical quantity . The metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres (or 10 m), we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called "metre". The definition, agreement, and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. Different systems of units used to be very common. Now there is a global standard, the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), the modern form of the metric system . In trade, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES is often a subject of governmental regulation, to ensure fairness and transparency. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) is tasked with ensuring worldwide uniformity of measurements and their traceability to the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). Metrology is the science for developing nationally and internationally accepted units of weights and measures
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Science
SCIENCE (from Latin _scientia_, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics . However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his _ Book of Optics _. While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks into air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, medieval Middle Easterns used practical and experimental observation to classify materials. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws
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Commerce
COMMERCE is "the activity of buying and selling, especially on a large scale". Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References ETYMOLOGYCommerce is derived from the Latin commercium, from cum and merx, merchandise. HISTORY The caduceus has been used today as the symbol of commerce with which Mercury has traditionally been associated. Some commentators trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transaction in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency , trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Historian Peter Watson and Ramesh Manickam dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. In historic times, the introduction of currency as a standardized money , facilitated a wider exchange of goods and services. Numismatists have collections of these pokem tokens, which include coins from some Ancient World large-scale societies, although initial usage involved unmarked lumps of precious metal . The circulation of a standardized currency provides a method of overcoming the major disadvantage to commerce through use of a barter system, the "double coincidence of wants " necessary for barter trades to occur
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Metric System
The METRIC SYSTEM is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement . It was originally based on the _mètre des Archives _ and the _kilogramme des Archives _ introduced by the French First Republic in 1799, but over the years the definitions of the metre and the kilogram have been refined, and the metric system has been extended to incorporate many more units. Although a number of variants of the metric system emerged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the term is now often used as a synonym for "SI" or the " International System of Units "—the official system of measurement in almost every country in the world. The metric system has been officially sanctioned for use in the United States since 1866, but the U.S. remains the only industrialised country that has not fully adopted the metric system as its official system of measurement, although, in 1988, the United States Congress passed the Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act , which designates "the metric system of measurement as the preferred system of weights and measures for U.S. trade and commerce". Among many other things, the act requires federal agencies to use metric measurements in nearly all of its activities, although there are still some exceptions allowing traditional linear units to be used in documents intended for consumers
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Imperial System
The system of IMPERIAL UNITS or the IMPERIAL SYSTEM (also known as BRITISH IMPERIAL or EXCHEQUER STANDARDS of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The Imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825. The system came into official use across the British Empire . By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom, Canada and other countries formerly part of the British Empire. The imperial system developed from what were first known as English units , as did the related system of United States customary units
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United States Customary Units
UNITED STATES CUSTOMARY UNITS are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States . The UNITED STATES CUSTOMARY SYSTEM (USCS or USC) developed from English units which were in use in the British Empire before the U.S. became an independent country. However, the United Kingdom's system of measures was overhauled in 1824 to create the imperial system , changing the definitions of some units. Therefore, while many U.S. units are essentially similar to their Imperial counterparts, there are significant differences between the systems . The majority of U.S. customary units were redefined in terms of the meter and the kilogram with the Mendenhall Order of 1893 and, in practice, for many years before. These definitions were refined by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959. Americans primarily use customary units in commercial activities, as well as for personal and social use. In science, medicine, many sectors of industry and some of government and military, metric units are used. The International System of Units (SI), the modern form of the metric system , is preferred for many uses by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
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History Of Measurement
As civilization developed, so too did the need for units of measurement. These were required for numerous tasks such as: constructing dwellings of an appropriate size and shape, fashioning clothing, or bartering food or raw materials. CONTENTS * 1 Sources of Information * 2 Earliest known systems * 3 History of units * 3.1 Units of length * 3.2 Typographical units * 3.3 Units of mass * 3.4 Units of time and angle * 4 Metric conversion * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading SOURCES OF INFORMATION Weights and measures have taken a great variety of forms over the course of history, from simple informal expectations in barter transactions to elaborate state and supranational systems that integrate measures of many different kinds. Weights and measures from the oldest societies can often be inferred at least in part from archaeological specimens , often preserved in museums. The comparison of the dimensions of buildings with the descriptions of contemporary writers is another source of information. An interesting example of this is the comparison of the dimensions of the Greek Parthenon with the description given by Plutarch from which a fairly accurate idea of the size of the Attic foot is obtained
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French Revolution
The FRENCH REVOLUTION (French : _Révolution française_ ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire . The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies . Through the Revolutionary Wars , it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East . Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history . The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years\' War and the American Revolutionary War , the French government was deeply in debt and attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were heavily regressive
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Length
In geometric measurements, LENGTH is the most extended dimension of an object. In the International System of Quantities , length is any quantity with dimension distance. In other contexts "length" is the measured dimension of an object. For example, it is possible to cut a length of a wire which is shorter than wire thickness. Length
Length
may be distinguished from height , which is vertical extent, and width or breadth, which are the distance from side to side, measuring across the object at right angles to the length. Length
Length
is a measure of one dimension, whereas area is a measure of two dimensions (length squared) and volume is a measure of three dimensions (length cubed). In most systems of measurement , the unit of length is a base unit , from which other units are derived. The metric length of one kilometre is equivalent to the imperial measurement of 0.62137 miles . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Units * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY Measurement
Measurement
has been important ever since humans settled from nomadic lifestyles and started using building materials, occupying land and trading with neighbours. As society has become more technologically oriented, much higher accuracies of measurement are required in an increasingly diverse set of fields, from micro-electronics to interplanetary ranging
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Mass
In physics , MASS is a property of a physical body . It is the measure of an object's resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion ) when a net force is applied. It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). Mass is not the same as weight , even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale , rather than comparing it directly with known masses . An object on the Moon would weigh less than it does on Earth because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics , mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object. However, at very high speeds, special relativity postulates that energy becomes a significant additional source of mass. Thus, any stationary body having mass has an equivalent amount of energy, and all forms of energy resist acceleration by a force and have gravitational attraction. In addition, "matter" is a loosely defined term in science, and thus cannot be precisely measured. There are several distinct phenomena which can be used to measure mass
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Time
_TIME_ is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City . It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce
Henry Luce
, who built a highly profitable stable of magazines. A European edition (_ Time
Time
Europe_, formerly known as _ Time
Time
Atlantic_) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (_ Time
Time
Asia_) is based in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands , is based in Sydney
Sydney
, Australia. In December 2008, _Time_ discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. _Time_ has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States. In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department . Nancy Gibbs has been the managing editor since October 2013
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Electric Charge
ELECTRIC CHARGE is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field . There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like charges repel and unlike attract. An absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons , and is otherwise positively charged or uncharged. The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C). In electrical engineering , it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and, in chemistry , it is common to use the elementary charge (e) as a unit. The symbol Q often denotes charge. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics , and is still accurate for problems that don't require consideration of quantum effects . The electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles , which determines their electromagnetic interaction . Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields . The interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force , which is one of the four fundamental forces (See also: magnetic field )
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Electric Current
An ELECTRIC CURRENT is a flow of electric charge . In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire . It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte , or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma ). The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere , which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter . Electric currents cause Joule heating
Joule heating
, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs . They also create magnetic fields , which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers . In metals , one or more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within the metal. These conduction electrons are the charge carriers in metal conductors
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Metrology
METROLOGY, as defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), is "the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology". It establishes a common understanding of units, crucial in linking human activities. Modern metrology has its roots in the French Revolution 's political motivation to standardise units in France, when a length standard taken from a natural source was proposed. This led to the creation of the decimal-based metric system in 1795, establishing a set of standards for other types of measurements. Several other countries adopted the metric system between 1795 and 1875; to ensure conformity between the countries, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was established by the Metre Convention . This has evolved into the International System of Units (SI) as a result of a resolution at the 11th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) in 1960
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Gaussian Units
GAUSSIAN UNITS constitute a metric system of physical units . This system is the most common of the several electromagnetic unit systems based on cgs (centimetre–gram–second) units . It is also called the GAUSSIAN UNIT SYSTEM, GAUSSIAN-CGS UNITS, or often just CGS UNITS. The term "cgs units" is ambiguous and therefore to be avoided if possible: cgs contains within it several conflicting sets of electromagnetism units, not just Gaussian units, as described below. The most common alternative to Gaussian units are SI units . SI units are predominant in most fields, and continue to increase in popularity at the expense of Gaussian units. (Other alternative unit systems also exist, as discussed below.) Conversions between Gaussian units and SI units are not as simple as normal unit conversions. For example, the _formulas_ for physical laws of electromagnetism (such as Maxwell\'s equations ) need to be adjusted depending on what system of units one uses. As another example, quantities that are dimensionless (loosely "unitless") in one system may have dimension in another
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