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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) _al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah_ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar _Guardians of the Homeland_ Capital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS * Syrian people * Arameans * Kurds * Turkomans * Assyrians *
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Syria (other)
SYRIA is a country in the Middle East, incorporating north-eastern Levant and Eastern Mesopotamia. SYRIA, SIRIA, and SURYANI may also refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Geography and history * 1.1 In modern Middle East * 1.2 Ancient and classic Near East * 1.3 Incorporation of the geographic term Syria outside of the Middle East * 2 Art, entertainment, and media * 3 People * 4 Politics * 5 Other uses * 6 Suryani may also refer to * 7 See also GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORYThe Region of Syria refers to wider historical geographic region
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Flag Of Syria
As a result of the ongoing Syrian civil war , there are currently two governments claiming to be the _de jure_ government of Syria , using different flags to represent the state. The incumbent government, led by Bashar al-Assad and the Ba\'ath Party , is using the red-white-black _ United Arab Republic flag_ in use since 1980; while the Syrian Interim Government , led by the Syrian National Coalition – seeking to overthrow the Assad government – readopted the green-white-black _Independence flag_ in 2012
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Coat Of Arms Of Syria
The current COAT OF ARMS OF SYRIA or COAT OF ARMS OF THE SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC was adopted in 1980, following the 1977 dissolution of the Federation of Arab Republics , whose coat of arms had until then been used by its constituent states. This emblem consist of the Hawk of Quraish supporting a shield bearing the national flag of Syria (in vertical form), and a scroll of the words "Syrian Arab Republic" in Arabic (الجمهورية العربية السورية). Since the start of the ongoing Syrian Civil War in March 2011, alternative coats of arms have been created by Syrian opposition and Federation of Northern Syria . HISTORY See also: Modern history of Syria Since the declaration of the Syrian Republic on 14 May 1930, Syria has had several coats of arms, albeit fairly consistent in composition - a supporter (often the Hawk of Quraish) bearing a shield, with the official Arabic name of the territory on a scroll beneath. During Syria\'s union with Egypt in the United Arab Republic (UAR) between 1958 and 1961, the pan-Arab Eagle of Saladin was used as the basis of the coat of arms. Though Syria withdrew from the union in 1961, Egypt continued to use the official name, flag, and coat of arms of the UAR until 1971
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Humat Ad-Diyar
"ĦUMāT AD-DIYāR" (Arabic : حُمَاةَ الدِّيَار‎‎, translated GUARDIANS OF THE HOMELAND) is the national anthem of Syria
Syria
, with lyrics written by Khalil Mardam Bey and the music by Mohammed Flayfel, who also composed the national anthem of the Palestinian National Authority , as well as many other Arab folk songs. CONTENTS * 1 Composition * 2 Structure * 3 Anthem Summary * 3.1 Text * 4 References * 5 External links COMPOSITIONIt was adopted in 1938 after a national competition was held by Hashim al-Atassi\'s nationalist government to choose an anthem for the new republic two years after the Franco–Syrian Treaty of Independence was signed which gave Syria
Syria
limited autonomy and future independence. The anthem was initially set to lose the competition, but it later won the competition after the anthem gained rapid popularity amongst the Syrian populace which put pressure on the competition's committee to reconsider its decisions, and eventually the anthem won and was adopted by the government as Syria's national anthem. The anthem temporarily fell from use when Syria
Syria
joined the United Arab Republic with Egypt in 1958. It was decided that the national anthem of the UAR would be a combination of the then-Egyptian anthem and _Ħumāt ad-Diyār_
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Damascus
DAMASCUS (Arabic : دمشق‎‎ _Dimashq_ , Syrian : ) is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria , following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as _ash-Sham_ (Arabic : الشام‎‎ _ash-Shām_) and nicknamed as the _City of Jasmine _ (Arabic : مدينة الياسمين‎‎ _Madīnat al-Yāsmīn_). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant . The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009 . Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people (2004). Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range 80 kilometres (50 mi) inland from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean on a plateau 680 metres (2,230 ft) above sea level , Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate because of the rain shadow effect . The Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750
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Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ _al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá_ 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard _(al-)fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah_) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah_), the standard language in use today. MSA is based on classical Arabic, and differences between the two varieties of the language are directly related to modernizing and simplification, both in speaking and writing styles. Most Arabic
Arabic
speakers consider the two varieties to be two registers of one language, although the two registers can be referred to in Arabic
Arabic
as فصح ى العصر _fuṣḥá l-ʻaṣr_ (MSA) and فصح ى التراث _fuṣḥá t-turāth_ (CA)
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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Arameans
The ARAMEANS, or ARAMAEANS (Aramaic : ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ‎‎, _ʼaramáyé_), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederacy who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age – from the 11th–8th centuries BC. They established a patchwork of independent Aramaic kingdoms in the Levant and seized large tracts of Mesopotamia . Use of the Western Aramaic language of the Arameans has steadily declined in the face of Arabic since the Arab Islamic conquest of the area in the 7th century AD, and the last vestiges of the spoken tongue in and around Maalula are in danger of extinction, although Aramean personal and family names and identity are still found among the Syriac Christians in the Levant , and many Syriac Christians in the Levant still espouse an Aramean heritage and ancestry, particularly in modern Syria , Lebanon , south central Turkey and Israel to this day (see Arameanism )
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Kurds In Syria
KURDS IN SYRIA refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin. The Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria, comprising between 10% and 15% of the country's population according to the Minority Rights Group International, CIA and pro-government sources. Syrian Kurds have faced routine discrimination and harassment by the government. " Syrian Kurdistan " (Kurdish : Kurdistana Sûriyê) is an unofficial name used by some to describe the Kurdish inhabited regions of northern and northeastern Syria. The northeastern Kurdish inhabited region covers the greater part of Hasakah Governorate . The main cities in this region are (Qamishlo) Qamishli and Al-Hasakah . Another region with significant Kurdish population is Kobanî (officially known as Ayn al-Arab ) in the northern part of Syria near the town of Jarabulus and also the city of Afrin and its surroundings along the Turkish border. Many Kurds seek political autonomy for the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria, similar to Iraqi Kurdistan in Iraq, or outright independence as part of Kurdistan . The name Rojava (Kurdish : Rojavayê Kurdistanê) is also used by Kurds to name the Syrian Kurdish inhabited areas in relation to Kurdistan
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Syrian Turkmen
SYRIAN TURKMENS (also referred to as SYRIAN TURKOMANS or SYRIAN TURKS) ( Arabic : تركمان سوريا‎‎, Turkish : _Suriye Türkleri_ or _Suriye Türkmenleri_) are Syrian citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity. Turkic migration to Syria began in the 11th century during the rule of the Seljuk Empire . However, most Turkmen settled in the region after the Ottoman sultan Selim I conquered Syria in 1516. The Ottoman administration encouraged Turcoman families from Anatolia to establish villages throughout the rural hinterlands of several cities in Ottoman Syria (and later the Syria Vilayet ). Migration from Anatolia to Syria was continuous for over 400 years of Ottoman rule, until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1918; nonetheless, the Syrian Turkmen community continued to reside in the region during the French Mandate and the formation of various Syrian Republics . Today the Syrian Turkmen community share common genealogical and linguistic ties with the "Turkmen" of Iraq (see Iraqi Turkmen ) and Turkey and do not identifity themselves with the Turkmen of Turkmenistan
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Syrian-Assyrians
SYRIAN ASSYRIANS or ASSYRIANS IN SYRIA are people of Assyrian descent living in the country of Syria , who make up around 4–5% of its population. They are distinct from the Syrian Christians of western, southern and central Syria, being Eastern Aramaic speakers rather than Arabic (and formerly Western Aramaic ) speakers, and being of Mesopotamian /Assyrian rather than Levantine / Aramean origin, and are an ancient pre- Arab indigenous people . They live primarily in Al-Hasakah Governorate , with a significant presence in the provincial capital and the cities of Qamishli , Malikiyah , Ras al-Ayn , and Qahtaniyah , as well as in Tell Tamer and nearby villages, although some have migrated to Damascus and other western cities. The Assyrians in the Khabur valley , belong mostly to the Assyrian Church of the East , Syriac Orthodox Church and some to the Chaldean Catholic Church . CONTENTS * 1 Ancient settlement * 2 Modern settlement * 3 Persecution by ISIL * 4 Assyrians in Rojava * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ANCIENT SETTLEMENT _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Armenians In Syria
The ARMENIANS IN SYRIA are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent. Syria and the surrounding areas have often served as a refuge for Armenians who fled from wars and persecutions such as the Armenian Genocide . According to the Ministry of Diaspora of the Republic of Armenia, the estimated number of Armenians in Syria is 100,000, with more than 60,000 of them centralized in Aleppo . With other estimates by Armenian foundations in Syria putting the number around 70-80,000. However, Since the start of the conflict 16,623 Syrian citizens of ethnic Armenian background have arrived in Armenia, of whom about 13,000 displaced persons remained and found protection in Armenia as of July 2015. The government is offering several protection options including simplified naturalization by Armenian descent (15,000 persons acquired Armenian citizenship ), accelerated asylum procedures and facilitated short, mid and long-term residence permits. According to Hranush Hakobyan only 15,000 Armenians are left in Syria and the rest have been settled in Armenia or Nagorno Karabakh , with another 8,000 having left for Lebanon , and others going to destinations including Europe , the United States and Canada
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Islam In Syria
ISLAM IN SYRIA is followed by 90% of the country's total population: Sunnis make up 74% of the total, mostly of Arab , Kurdish and Turkoman ethnicities. Shias make up the remaining 13%: Alawites are the predominant Shia group, followed by Twelvers and Ismailis . Sunnis are mainly of the Shafi\'i madhhab with pockets of Hanafi and Hanbali . Several large Sufi orders are active in the country, including the Naqshbandi tariqa , and Qadiriyya . Although not traditionally considered as Muslims, the Druze make up 3% of the total population. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Sects * 2.1 Sunni Islam * 2.2 Twelver Shia Islam * 2.3 Alawites * 2.4 Ismailis * 2.5 Druzes * 2.6 Ahmadiyya * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORYIn 634-640, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Levant , Syria was conquered by the Muslim Arabs in the form of the Rashidun army led by Khalid ibn al-Walid , under the overall leadership of Abu Bakr , resulting in the region becoming part of the Islamic empire . In the mid-7th century, the Umayyad dynasty, then rulers of the empire, placed the capital of the empire in Damascus
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