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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) _al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah_ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar _Guardians of the Homeland_ Capital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS *
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Syria (other)
SYRIA is a country in the Middle East, incorporating north-eastern Levant and Eastern Mesopotamia. SYRIA, SIRIA, and SURYANI may also refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Geography and history * 1.1 In modern Middle East * 1.2 Ancient and classic Near East * 1.3 Incorporation of the geographic term Syria
Syria
outside of the Middle East * 2 Art, entertainment, and media * 3 People * 4 Politics * 5 Other uses * 6 Suryani may also refer to * 7 See also GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORYThe Region of Syria
Syria
refers to wider historical geographic region
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Flag Of Syria
As a result of the ongoing Syrian civil war
Syrian civil war
, there are currently two governments claiming to be the de jure government of Syria
Syria
, using different flags to represent the state. The incumbent government, led by Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
and the Ba\'ath Party , is using the red-white-black United Arab Republic flag in use since 1980; while the Syrian Interim Government , led by the Syrian National Coalition – seeking to overthrow the Assad government – readopted the green-white-black Independence flag in 2012
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Coat Of Arms Of Syria
The current COAT OF ARMS OF SYRIA or COAT OF ARMS OF THE SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC was adopted in 1980, following the 1977 dissolution of the Federation of Arab Republics , whose coat of arms had until then been used by its constituent states. This emblem consist of the Hawk of Quraish supporting a shield bearing the national flag of Syria
Syria
(in vertical form), and a scroll of the words "Syrian Arab Republic" in Arabic (الجمهورية العربية السورية). Since the start of the ongoing Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
in March 2011, alternative coats of arms have been created by Syrian opposition
Syrian opposition
and Federation of Northern Syria
Syria

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Humat Ad-Diyar
"ḤUMāT AD-DIYāR" (Arabic : حماة الديار‎, translated GUARDIANS OF THE HOMELAND) is the national anthem of Syria
Syria
, with lyrics written by Khalil Mardam Bey and the music by Mohammed Flayfel, who also composed the national anthem of the Palestinian National Authority , as well as many other Arab folk songs. CONTENTS * 1 Composition * 2 Structure * 3 Anthem Summary * 3.1 Text * 4 References * 5 External links COMPOSITIONIt was adopted in 1938 after a national competition was held by Hashim al-Atassi\'s nationalist government to choose an anthem for the new republic two years after the Franco–Syrian Treaty of Independence was signed which gave Syria
Syria
limited autonomy and future independence
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Damascus
DAMASCUS (Arabic : دمشق‎‎ _Dimashq_ , Syrian : ) is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria , following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as _ash-Sham_ (Arabic : الشام‎‎ _ash-Shām_) and nicknamed as the _City of Jasmine _ (Arabic : مدينة الياسمين‎‎ _Madīnat al-Yāsmīn_). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant . The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009 . Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people (2004)
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Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ _al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá_ 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard _(al-)fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah_) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah_), the standard language in use today
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Arameans
The ARAMEANS, or ARAMAEANS (Aramaic : ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ‎‎, _ʼaramáyé_), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederacy who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age – from the 11th–8th centuries BC. They established a patchwork of independent Aramaic kingdoms in the Levant and seized large tracts of Mesopotamia
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Kurds In Syria
KURDS IN SYRIA refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin. The Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria, comprising between 10% and 15% of the country's population according to the Minority Rights Group International, CIA and pro-government sources. Syrian Kurds have faced routine discrimination and harassment by the government. " Syrian Kurdistan " (Kurdish : Kurdistana Sûriyê) is an unofficial name used by some to describe the Kurdish inhabited regions of northern and northeastern Syria. The northeastern Kurdish inhabited region covers the greater part of Hasakah Governorate . The main cities in this region are (Qamishlo) Qamishli and Al-Hasakah
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Syrian Turkmen
SYRIAN TURKMENS (also referred to as SYRIAN TURKOMANS or SYRIAN TURKS) ( Arabic : تركمان سوريا‎‎, Turkish : _Suriye Türkleri_ or _Suriye Türkmenleri_) are Syrian citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity. Turkic migration to Syria began in the 11th century during the rule of the Seljuk Empire . However, most Turkmen settled in the region after the Ottoman sultan Selim I conquered Syria in 1516. The Ottoman administration encouraged Turcoman families from Anatolia to establish villages throughout the rural hinterlands of several cities in Ottoman Syria (and later the Syria Vilayet )
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Syrian-Assyrians
SYRIAN ASSYRIANS or ASSYRIANS IN SYRIA are people of Assyrian descent living in the country of Syria
Syria
, who make up around 4–5% of its population. They are distinct from the Syrian Christians of western, southern and central Syria, being Eastern Aramaic speakers rather than Arabic
Arabic
(and formerly Western Aramaic ) speakers, and being of Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
/Assyrian rather than Levantine / Aramean
Aramean
origin, and are an ancient pre- Arab
Arab
indigenous people
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Armenians In Syria
The ARMENIANS IN SYRIA are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent. Syria
Syria
and the surrounding areas have often served as a refuge for Armenians
Armenians
who fled from wars and persecutions such as the Armenian Genocide . According to the Ministry of Diaspora of the Republic of Armenia, the estimated number of Armenians
Armenians
in Syria
Syria
is 100,000, with more than 60,000 of them centralized in Aleppo
Aleppo
. With other estimates by Armenian foundations in Syria
Syria
putting the number around 70-80,000. However, since the start of the conflict, 16,623 Syrian citizens of ethnic Armenian background have arrived in Armenia. Of these displaced persons, 13,000 remained and found protection in Armenia
Armenia
as of July 2015
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Islam In Syria
ISLAM IN SYRIA is followed by 87% of the country's total population: Sunnis make up 75% of the total, mostly of Arab
Arab
, Kurdish and Turkoman ethnicities. Shias make up the remaining 12%: Alawites
Alawites
are the predominant Shia
Shia
group, followed by Twelvers
Twelvers
and Ismailis . Sunnis are mainly of the Shafi\'i madhhab with pockets of Hanafi
Hanafi
and Hanbali . Several large Sufi
Sufi
orders are active in the country, including the Naqshbandi tariqa , and Qadiriyya
Qadiriyya
. Although not traditionally considered as Muslims, the Druze
Druze
make up 3% of the total population
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