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Synthetic Cannabinoid
Synthetic cannabinoids
Synthetic cannabinoids
are a class of chemicals that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body, but that are different from the natural cannabinoids in cannabis plants. They are often marketed as designer drugs or sold in products with claims that they give the effects of cannabis
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Binding Affinity
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. The binding typically results in a change of conformation of the target protein. In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. The relationship between ligand and binding partner is a function of charge, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. The instance of binding occurs over an infinitesimal range of time and space, so the rate constant is usually a very small number. Binding occurs by intermolecular forces, such as ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. The association of docking is actually reversible through dissociation. Measurably irreversible covalent bonding between a ligand and target molecule is atypical in biological systems
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Phase 1 Metabolism
Drug
Drug
metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. More generally, xenobiotic metabolism (from the Greek xenos "stranger" and biotic "related to living beings") is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics, which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal biochemistry, such as any drug or poison. These pathways are a form of biotransformation present in all major groups of organisms, and are considered to be of ancient origin. These reactions often act to detoxify poisonous compounds (although in some cases the intermediates in xenobiotic metabolism can themselves cause toxic effects). The study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology and medicine. For example, the rate of metabolism determines the duration and intensity of a drug's pharmacologic action
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Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
(MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more ofte
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Convulsions
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.[1] Because epileptic seizure is often a cause of convulsion, the term convulsion is sometimes used as a synonym for seizure. However, not all epileptic seizures lead to convulsions, and not all convulsions are caused by epileptic seizures. Convulsions are also consistent with an electric shock and improper enriched air scuba diving. For non-epileptic convulsions, see non-epileptic seizures. The word "fit" is sometimes used to mean a convulsion or epileptic seizure.[2]Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Generalized seizures2 Causes 3 References 4 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] When a person is having a convulsion, they may experience several different symptoms
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Epileptic Seizure
An epileptic seizure, also known as an epileptic fit, is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.[2] The outward effect can vary from uncontrolled jerking movement (tonic-clonic seizure) to as subtle as a momentary loss of awareness (absence seizure). Diseases of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures are collectively called epilepsy.[2][3] Seizures can also occur in people who do not have epilepsy for various reasons including brain trauma, drug use, elevated body temperature, low blood sugar and low levels of oxygen
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Psychosis
Psychosis
Psychosis
is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.[4] Symptoms may include false beliefs and seeing or hearing things that others do not see or hear.[4] Other symptoms may include incoherent speech and behavior that is inappropriate for the situation.[4] There may also be sleep problems, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, and difficulties carrying out daily activities.[4]
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Full Agonists
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist, and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist.Contents1 Types of agonists 2 Activity2.1 Potency 2.2 Therapeutic index3 Etymology 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes of agonists[edit] Receptors can be activated by either endogenous agonists (such as hormones and neurotransmitters) or exogenous agonists (such as drugs), resulting in a biological response. A physiological agonist is a substance that creates the same bodily responses but does not bind to the same receptor.An endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor
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Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1
1LVQ, 1LVR, 2B0Y, 2KOE, 2MZ3, 2MZ2, 2MZA,%%s1LVQ, 1LVR, 2B0Y, 2KOEIdentifiersAliases CNR1, CANN6, CB-R, CB1, CB1A, CB1K5, CB1R, CNR, cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain), cannabinoid receptor 1, cannabinoid CB1 receptor geneExternal IDs MGI: 104615 HomoloGene: 7273 GeneCards: CNR1Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
6 (human)[1]Band 6q15 Start 88,139,864 bp[1]End 88,166,359 bp[1]Gene location (Mouse)Chr.
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Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2
2KI9IdentifiersAliases CNR2, CB-2, CB2, CX5, Cannabinoid receptor
Cannabinoid receptor
type 2, cannabinoid receptor 2External IDs MGI: 104650 HomoloGene: 1389 GeneCards: CNR2Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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Partial Agonist
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist. They may also be considered ligands which display both agonistic and antagonistic effects — when both a full agonist and partial agonist are present, the partial agonist actually acts as a competitive antagonist, competing with the full agonist for receptor occupancy and producing a net decrease in the receptor activation observed with the full agonist alone.[1] Clinically, partial agonists can be used to activate receptors to give a desired submaximal response when inadequate amounts of the endogenous ligand are present, or they can reduce the overstimulation of receptors when excess amounts of the endogenous ligand are present.[2] Some currently common drugs that have been classed as partial agonists at particular receptors include buspirone, aripiprazole, buprenorphine, nalmefene and norclozapine
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Metabolite
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules. Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Ethylene
Ethylene
is an example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology. A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as resins and terpenes etc. Some antibiotics use primary metabolites as precursors, such as actinomycin which is created from the primary metabolite, tryptophan
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Hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia
is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs. In humans, it is defined as a body core temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F).[2] Symptoms depend on the temperature.[2] In mild hypothermia there is shivering and mental confusion.[2] In moderate hypothermia shivering stops and confusion increases.[2] In severe hypothermia, there may be paradoxical undressing, in which a person removes his or her clothing, as well as an increased risk of the heart stopping.[2] Hypothermia
Hypothermia
has two main types of causes
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John W. Huffman
John William Huffman (born 1932) is a professor emeritus of organic chemistry at Clemson University
Clemson University
who first synthesised many novel cannabinoids.[1] His research, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, was focused on making a drug to target endocannabinoid receptors in the body.[2]Contents1 Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
research 2 Law enforcement 3 External links 4 See also 5 References Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
research[edit] Beginning in 1984, Huffman and his team of researchers began developing cannabinoid compounds to aid in research of multiple sclerosis, HIV/AIDS, and chemotherapy. Over the course of twenty years, Huffman and his team developed 450 synthetic cannabinoid compounds which were used to test the effect of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and other organs
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Psychotic Episode
Psychosis
Psychosis
is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.[4] Symptoms may include false beliefs and seeing or hearing things that others do not see or hear.[4] Other symptoms may include incoherent speech and behavior that is inappropriate for the situation.[4] There may also be sleep problems, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, and difficulties carrying out daily activities.[4]
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Antipsychotic
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers,[1] are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They are increasingly being used in the management of non-psychotic disorders. Antipsychotics are usually effective in relieving symptoms of psychosis in the short term. The long-term use of antipsychotics is associated with side effects such as involuntary movement disorders, gynecomastia, and metabolic syndrome. They are also associated with increased mortality in elderly people with dementia. First-generation antipsychotics, known as typical antipsychotics, were discovered in the 1950s
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