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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and vice versa). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Synonym
A SYNONYM is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS, and the state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY. The word comes from Ancient Greek _sýn_ (σύν; "with") and _ónoma_ (ὄνομα; "name"). An example of synonyms are the words _begin_, _start_, _commence_, and _initiate_. Words can be synonymous when meant in certain senses , even if they are not synonymous in all of their senses. For example, if one talks about a _long time_ or an _extended time_, _long_ and _extended_ are synonymous within that context . Synonyms with exact meaning share a seme or denotational sememe , whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field . Some academics call the former type cognitive synonyms to distinguish them from the latter type, which they call near-synonyms. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have exactly the same meaning (in all contexts or social levels of language) because etymology , orthography , phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, usage, etc. make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning usually differ for a reason: _feline_ is more formal than _cat_; _long_ and _extended_ are only synonyms in one usage and not in others (for example, a _long arm_ is not the same as an _extended arm_). Synonyms are also a source of euphemisms
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Nomenclature
NOMENCLATURE is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names given to organic compounds. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and other disciplines. Naming "things" is a part of general human communication using words and language : it is an aspect of everyday taxonomy as people distinguish the objects of their experience, together with their similarities and differences, which observers identify , name and classify. The use of names, as the many different kinds of nouns embedded in different languages, connects nomenclature to theoretical linguistics , while the way humans mentally structure the world in relation to word meanings and experience relates to the philosophy of language . Onomastics , the study of proper names and their origins, includes anthroponymy (concerned with human names, including personal names , surnames and nicknames ); toponymy (the study of place names) and etymology (the derivation, history and use of names) as revealed through comparative and descriptive linguistics
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from _taxonomy _) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping. Although preceded by Linnaeus 's system in _ Systema Naturae _ (10th edition, 1758) and unpublished work by Bernard and Antoine Laurent de Jussieu , the notion of a unit-based "natural system" of biological classification was first made widely available in 1805 through the publication, as the introduction to the third edition of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck 's _Flore françoise_, of Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
's _Principes élémentaires de botanique_, an exposition of a system for the "natural classification" of plants. Since then, systematists have striven to construct an accurate classification encompassing the diversity of life; today, a "good" or "useful" taxon is commonly taken to be one that reflects evolutionary relationships
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Picea Abies
PICEA ABIES, the NORWAY SPRUCE, is a species of spruce native to Northern , Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. It has branchlets that typically hang downwards, and the largest cones of any spruce , 9–17 cm (3 1⁄2–6 3⁄4 in) long. It is very closely related to the Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), which replaces it east of the Ural Mountains , and with which it hybridises freely. The Norway spruce is widely planted for its wood, and is the species used as the main Christmas tree
Christmas tree
in several cities around the world. It was the first gymnosperm to have its genome sequenced , and one clone has been measured as 9,550 years old. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Range and ecology * 3 Cultivation * 4 Longevity * 5 Genetics * 6 Chemistry * 7 Research * 8 Taxonomy * 8.1 Synonyms * 8.2 Cultivars * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links DESCRIPTION An 1885 illustration of P. abies, showing the cones and leaves. Norway spruce is a large, fast-growing evergreen coniferous tree growing 35–55 m (115–180 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of 1 to 1.5 m (39 to 59 in). It can grow fast when young, up to 1 m (3 ft) per year for the first 25 years under good conditions, but becomes slower once over 20 m (65 ft) tall. The shoots are orange-brown and glabrous (hairless)
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Circumscription (taxonomy)
In biological taxonomy , CIRCUMSCRIPTION is the definition of a taxon , that is, a group of organisms . One goal of biological taxonomy is to achieve a stable circumscription for every taxon. Achieving stability is not yet a certainty in most taxa, and many that had been regarded as stable for decades are in upheaval in the light of rapid developments in molecular phylogenetics . In essence, new discoveries may invalidate the application of irrelevant attributes used in established or obsolete circumscriptions, or present new attributes useful in cladistic taxonomy . An example of a taxonomic group with unstable circumscription is Anacardiaceae , a family of flowering plants . Some experts favor a circumscription in which this family includes the Blepharocaryaceae , Julianaceae , and Podoaceae , which are sometimes considered to be separate families. SEE ALSO * Glossary of scientific naming * Circumscription (logic) * Circumscriptional name * Circumscribed circle
Circumscribed circle
* Venn diagram REFERENCES * ^ Anacardiaceae Archived March 15, 2005, at the Wayback Machine . in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants. Archived December 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards)
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Nomenclature Codes
NOMENCLATURE CODES or CODES OF NOMENCLATURE are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature , each in their own broad field of organisms. To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to families , it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work. The successful introduction of two-part names for species by Linnaeus was the start for an ever-expanding system of nomenclature. With all naturalists worldwide adopting this approach to thinking up names there arose several schools of thought about the details. It became ever more apparent that a detailed body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names . From the mid-nineteenth century onwards there were several initiatives to arrive at worldwide-accepted sets of rules
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Conserved Name
A CONSERVED NAME or NOMEN CONSERVANDUM (plural NOMINA CONSERVANDA, abbreviated as NOM. CONS.) is a scientific name that has specific nomenclatural protection. Nomen conservandum is a Latin
Latin
term, meaning "a name to be conserved". The terms are often used interchangeably, such as by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), while the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature favours "conserved name". The process for conserving botanical names is different from that for zoological names. Under the botanical code, names may also be "suppressed", NOMEN REJICIENDUM (plural NOMINA REJICIENDA or NOMINA UTIQUE REJICIENDA, abbreviated as NOM. REJ.), or rejected in favour of a particular conserved name, and combinations based on a suppressed name are also listed as nom. rej. CONTENTS* 1 Botany * 1.1 Effects * 1.2 Documentation * 1.3 Procedure * 2 Zoology * 3 See also * 4 References BOTANYIn botanical nomenclature, CONSERVATION is a nomenclatural procedure governed by Art. 14 of the ICN. Its purpose is "to avoid disadvantageous nomenclatural changes entailed by the strict application of the rules, and especially of the principle of priority " (Art. 14.1). Conservation is possible only for names at the rank of family , genus or species . It may effect a change in original spelling, type , or (most commonly) priority. * Conserved spelling (ORTHOGRAPHIA CONSERVANDA, ORTH
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Erica Carnea
ERICA CARNEA (WINTER HEATH, WINTER FLOWERING HEATHER, SPRING HEATH, ALPINE HEATH; syn. E. herbacea, E. mediterranea) is a species of flowering plant in the family Ericaceae
Ericaceae
native to mountainous areas of central and southern Europe, where it grows in coniferous woodlands or stony slopes. It is a low-growing, spreading subshrub reaching 10–25 cm (4–10 in) tall, with evergreen needle-like leaves 4–8 millimetres (0.16–0.31 in) long, borne in whorls of four. The flowers are produced in racemes in late winter to early spring, often starting to flower while the plant is still covered in snow ; the individual flower is a slender bell-shape, 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in) long, dark reddish-pink, rarely white. The first published name for the species is Erica
Erica
herbacea; however, the name E. carnea (published three pages later in the same book) is so widely used, and the earlier name so little used, that a formal proposal to conserve the name E. carnea over E. herbacea was accepted by the International Botanical Congress
International Botanical Congress
in 1999. The Latin specific epithet carnea means "flesh pink". CULTIVATION AND USES Cultivar
Cultivar
series Springwood A close-up of the flower and leaf
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Drosophila Melanogaster
DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
. The species is known generally as the COMMON FRUIT FLY or VINEGAR FLY. Starting with Charles W. Woodworth 's proposal of the use of this species as a model organism , D. melanogaster continues to be widely used for biological research in genetics , physiology , microbial pathogenesis , and life history evolution . As of 2017, eight Nobel prizes had been awarded for research using Drosophila. Drosophila
Drosophila
is typically used in research because it can be readily reared in the laboratory, has only four pairs of chromosomes , breeds quickly, and lays many eggs. Its geographic range includes all continents, including islands. D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and other places where food is served. Flies belonging to the family Tephritidae
Tephritidae
are also called "fruit flies". This can cause confusion, especially in Australia
Australia
and South Africa , where the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata
Ceratitis capitata
is an economic pest
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Valid Name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature, the VALID NAME of a taxon is the zoological name that is to be used for that taxon following the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). In other words: a valid name is the correct zoological name of a taxon. In contrast, an INVALID NAME is a name that violates the rules of the ICZN. An invalid name is not considered to be a correct scientific name for a taxon. Invalid names may be divided into: * SUBJECTIVELY INVALID NAMES - Names that have been rendered invalid by individual scientific judgement or opinion. Taxonomists may differ in their opinion and names considered invalid by one researcher, can be accepted as valid by another; thus they are still POTENTIALLY VALID NAMES. It includes: * Junior subjective synonyms - synonyms described from different types previously described as separate taxa . * Junior secondary homonyms - species synonyms arising from merging two taxonomic groups previously considered separate. In this case, the taxa are separate species, but by chance, had the same specific name resulting in homonymy when their generic names are synonymized. * Conditionally suppressed names - are special cases where a name which would otherwise have been valid has been petitioned for suppression by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
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Scientific Latin
CONTEMPORARY LATIN is the form of the Latin language used from the end of the 19th century through to the present. Various kinds of contemporary Latin can be distinguished. On the one hand there is its survival in areas such as taxonomy as the result of the widespread presence of the language in the New Latin era. This is usually found in the form of mere words or phrases used in the general context of other languages. On the other hand, there is the use of Latin as a language in its own right as a full-fledged means of expression. Living or Spoken Latin, being the most specific development of Latin in the contemporary context, is the primary subject of this article. CONTEMPORARY LATIN Latinas viva A contemporary Latin inscription at Salamanca University commemorating the visit of the then Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan in 1985 (MCMLXXXV ). REGION Europe ERA Developed from Neo Latin between 19th and 20th centuries LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Italic * Latino-Faliscan * Latin * CONTEMPORARY LATIN EARLY FORM Neo Latin WRITING SYSTEM Latin alphabet LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 la ISO 639-2 lat ISO 639-3 lat GLOTTOLOG None THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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Scientific Name
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work Species
Species
Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici (English, Illustrated exposition of plants) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN)
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification , TAXONOMIC RANK is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon ) in a taxonomic hierarchy . Examples of taxonomic ranks are species , genus , family , order , class , phylum , kingdom , domain , etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two. Consider a particular species, the red fox , Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: its next rank, the genus Vulpes
Vulpes
, comprises all the 'true foxes'. Their closest relatives are in the immediately higher rank, the family Canidae , which includes dogs, wolves, jackals, all foxes, and other caniforms such as bears, badgers and seals; the next higher rank, the order Carnivora , includes feliforms and caniforms (lions, tigers, hyenas, wolverines, and all those mentioned above), plus other carnivorous mammals
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