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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce , which he called _Pinus abies_. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is _Picea abies_. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Synonym
A SYNONYM is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS, and the state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY. The word comes from Ancient Greek _sýn_ (σύν; "with") and _ónoma_ (ὄνομα; "name"). An example of synonyms are the words _begin_, _start_, _commence_, and _initiate_. Words can be synonymous when meant in certain senses , even if they are not synonymous in all of their senses. For example, if one talks about a _long time_ or an _extended time_, _long_ and _extended_ are synonymous within that context . Synonyms with exact meaning share a seme or denotational sememe , whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field . Some academics call the former type cognitive synonyms to distinguish them from the latter type, which they call near-synonyms
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Scientific Nomenclature
NOMENCLATURE is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names given to organic compounds. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and other disciplines. Naming "things" is a part of general human communication using words and language : it is an aspect of everyday taxonomy as people distinguish the objects of their experience, together with their similarities and differences, which observers identify , name and classify
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Scientific Name
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work Species
Species
Plantarum in 1753
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from _taxonomy _) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala
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Norway Spruce
PICEA ABIES, the NORWAY SPRUCE, is a species of spruce native to Northern , Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. It has branchlets that typically hang downwards, and the largest cones of any spruce , 9–17 cm (3 1⁄2–6 3⁄4 in) long. It is very closely related to the Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), which replaces it east of the Ural Mountains , and with which it hybridises freely. The Norway spruce is widely planted for its wood, and is the species used as the main Christmas tree
Christmas tree
in several cities around the world. It was the first gymnosperm to have its genome sequenced , and one clone has been measured as 9,550 years old
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Circumscription (taxonomy)
In biological taxonomy , CIRCUMSCRIPTION is the definition of a taxon , that is, a group of organisms . One goal of biological taxonomy is to achieve a stable circumscription for every taxon. Achieving stability is not yet a certainty in most taxa, and many that had been regarded as stable for decades are in upheaval in the light of rapid developments in molecular phylogenetics . In essence, new discoveries may invalidate the application of irrelevant attributes used in established or obsolete circumscriptions, or present new attributes useful in cladistic taxonomy . An example of a taxonomic group with unstable circumscription is Anacardiaceae , a family of flowering plants . Some experts favor a circumscription in which this family includes the Blepharocaryaceae , Julianaceae , and Podoaceae , which are sometimes considered to be separate families
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Nomenclature Codes
NOMENCLATURE CODES or CODES OF NOMENCLATURE are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature , each in their own broad field of organisms. To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to families , it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work. The successful introduction of two-part names for species by Linnaeus was the start for an ever-expanding system of nomenclature. With all naturalists worldwide adopting this approach to thinking up names there arose several schools of thought about the details. It became ever more apparent that a detailed body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names . From the mid-nineteenth century onwards there were several initiatives to arrive at worldwide-accepted sets of rules
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Conservation (botany)
A CONSERVED NAME or NOMEN CONSERVANDUM (plural NOMINA CONSERVANDA, abbreviated as NOM. CONS.) is a scientific name that has specific nomenclatural protection. Nomen conservandum is a Latin
Latin
term, meaning "a name to be conserved". The terms are often used interchangeably, such as by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), while the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature favours "conserved name". The process for conserving botanical names is different from that for zoological names. Under the botanical code, names may also be "suppressed", NOMEN REJICIENDUM (plural NOMINA REJICIENDA or NOMINA UTIQUE REJICIENDA, abbreviated as NOM. REJ.), or rejected in favour of a particular conserved name, and combinations based on a suppressed name are also listed as nom. rej
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Drosophila Melanogaster
_DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER_ is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae . The species is known generally as the COMMON FRUIT FLY or VINEGAR FLY. Starting with Charles W. Woodworth 's proposal of the use of this species as a model organism , _D. melanogaster_ continues to be widely used for biological research in genetics , physiology , microbial pathogenesis , and life history evolution . This species is typically used because it can be readily reared in the laboratory, has only four pairs of chromosomes , breeds quickly, and lays many eggs. Its geographic range includes all continents, including islands. _D. melanogaster_ is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and other places where food is served. Flies belonging to the family Tephritidae are also called "fruit flies"
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Salamanders
Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Native distribution of salamanders (in green)SALAMANDERS are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard -like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All present-day salamander families are grouped together under the scientific name URODELA. Salamander diversity is most abundant in the Northern Hemisphere and most species are found in the Holarctic
Holarctic
ecozone , with some species present in the Neotropical zone. Salamanders never have more than four toes on their front legs and five on their rear legs, but some species have fewer digits and others lack hind limbs. Their permeable skin usually makes them reliant on habitats in or near water or other cool, damp places
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Frogs
Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia List of Anuran families Native distribution of frogs (in green)A FROG is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order ANURA (Ancient Greek _an-,_ without + _oura_, tail). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic
Triassic
of Madagascar
Madagascar
, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian
Permian
, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests . There are approximately 4,800 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals . It is also informally known as the ICZN CODE, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature * Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature . This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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