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Synod Of Whitby
The Synod
Synod
of Whitby
Whitby
(664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria
Northumbria
ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter
Easter
and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona
Iona
and its satellite institutions. The synod was summoned at Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh (Streanæshalch), later called Whitby
Whitby
Abbey.Contents1 Sources 2 Background 3 Convocation 4 Decision 5 Outcome 6 Legacy and historical significance 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Bibliography9.1 Primary sources 9.2 Secondary sources10 External linksSources[edit]A manuscript of Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.There are two principal sources for the synod
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Saint
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.[1][2] Depending on the context and denomination, the term also retains its original Christian
Christian
meaning, as any believer who is "in Christ" and in whom Christ
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Lent
Lent
Lent
(Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter
Easter
Sunday
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Passover
Passover
Passover
or Pesach (/ˈpɛsɑːx, ˈpeɪsɑːx/;[4] from Hebrew פֶּסַח‬ Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday. Jews
Jews
celebrate Passover
Passover
as a commemoration of their liberation by God from slavery in ancient Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses
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Passover (Christian Holiday)
Some Christians observe a form of the Jewish holiday of Passover. The practice is found among Assemblies of Yahweh, Messianic Jews, and some congregations of the Church of God (Seventh Day). It is often linked to the Christian holiday and festival of Easter. Often, only an abbreviated seder is celebrated to explain the meaning in a time-limited ceremony. The redemption from the bondage of sin through the sacrifice of Christ is celebrated, a parallel of the Jewish Passover's celebration of redemption from bondage in the land of Egypt.[1] Christian Passover ceremonies are held on the evening corresponding to 14 Nisan (e.g
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Quartodecimanism
The term "Quartodecimanism" (from the Vulgate
Vulgate
Latin
Latin
quarta decima in Leviticus
Leviticus
23:5,[1] meaning fourteenth) refers to the custom of early Christians celebrating Passover
Passover
beginning with the eve of the 14th day of Nisan
Nisan
(or Aviv in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
calendar), which at dusk is biblically the "Lord's passover".[citation needed] The modern Jewish Passover
Passover
and Feast of Unleavened Bread
Feast of Unleavened Bread
is seven days, starting with the sunset at the beginning of Nisan
Nisan
15. Judaism reckons the beginning of each day at sunset, not at sunrise as was the ancient custom in European traditions
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Nisan
Nisan
Nisan
(or Nissan; Hebrew: נִיסָן‎, Standard Nisan
Nisan
Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year. The name of the month is of Assyrian-Babylonian origin; in the Torah
Torah
it is called the month of the Aviv. (e.g. Exodus 13:4 בְּחֹ֖דֶשׁ הָאָבִֽיב ḥōḏeš hā-’āḇîḇ) Assyrians today refer to the month as the "month of happiness." It is a spring month of 30 days. Nisan
Nisan
usually falls in March– April
April
on the Gregorian calendar. In the Book of Esther
Book of Esther
in the Tanakh
Tanakh
it is referred to as Nisan
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Death And Resurrection Of Jesus
The resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus
Jesus
rose again from the dead
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First Council Of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea
Nicaea
(/naɪˈsiːə/; Greek: Νίκαια [ˈnikεa]) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea
Nicaea
(now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
in AD 325. Constantine I
Constantine I
organized the council along the lines of the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
and presided over it, but did not cast any official vote. This ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom
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Lunisolar Calendar
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year, then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season; if it is taken as a sidereal year, then the calendar will predict the constellation near which the full moon may occur. As with all calendars which divide the year into months there is an additional requirement that the year have a whole number of months
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Columbanus
Columbanus
Columbanus
(Irish: Columbán, 543 – 21 November 615),[1] also known as St. Columban,[2] was an Irish missionary notable for founding a number of monasteries from around 590 in the Frankish and Lombard kingdoms, most notably Luxeuil Abbey
Luxeuil Abbey
in present-day France and Bobbio Abbey in present-day Italy
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Finan Of Lindisfarne
Finan of Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
(died 17 February 661), also known as Saint Finan, was an Irish monk, trained at Iona Abbey
Iona Abbey
in Scotland, who became the second Bishop of Lindisfarne
Bishop of Lindisfarne
from 651 until 661.Contents1 Life 2 Veneration 3 Citations 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Finan was appointed to Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
in 651.[1] Originally from Ireland, he built on Lindisfarne, a cathedral "in the Irish fashion", employing hewn oak, with a thatched roof, dedicated to St. Peter. He also founded St
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Oswald Of Northumbria
Oswald (c 604 – 5 August 641/642[1]) was King of Northumbria
Northumbria
from 634 until his death, and is venerated as a saint,[2] of whom there was a particular cult in the Middle Ages.[3] Oswald was the son of Æthelfrith
Æthelfrith
of Bernicia
Bernicia
and came to rule after spending a period in exile. After defeating the British ruler Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Oswald brought the two Northumbrian kingdoms of Bernicia
Bernicia
and Deira
Deira
once again under a single ruler, and promoted the spread of Christianity
Christianity
in Northumbria. He was given a strongly positive assessment by the historian Bede, writing a little less than a century after Oswald's death, who regarded Oswald as a saintly king; it is also Bede
Bede
who is the main source for present-day historical knowledge of Oswald
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Colmán Of Lindisfarne
Colmán or Colman is both a given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include:Contents1 Medieval Irish people1.1 Saints2 Surname 3 Other 4 See alsoMedieval Irish people[edit] Colmán Bec (died c. 585), Irish dynast Colmán mac Cobthaig (died c. 622), Irish king Colmán mac Lénéni
Colmán mac Lénéni
(died c. 606), Irish poet Colmán Már (died c. 557), Irish dynast Colmán Rímid (died c. 612), Irish king Colman nepos Cracavist (fl. c. 800), Hiberno-Latin poetSaints[edit] Colmán Elo (d. 611) of the moccu Béognae Colman of Cloyne, 6th century Bishop of Cloyne Colman of Dromore, 6th century Bishop of Dromore Colman of Kilmacduagh, 7th century Bishop of Kilmacduagh Colmán of Kilroot, contemporary of St. Ailbe Colmán of Lindisfarne (d
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Deira (kingdom)
Deira
Deira
(Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a Celtic kingdom – first recorded (but much older) by the Anglo-Saxons in 559 AD and lasted til 664 AD,[1] in Northern England
Northern England
that was first recorded when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.[2] It extended from the Humber
Humber
to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York
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Franks
The Franks
Franks
(Latin: Franci or Latin: gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term is associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire
Loire
and Rhine, and imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, later being recognized by the Catholic church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.[1][2][3][a] Although the Frankish name only appears in the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known under their own names to the Romans, both as allies providing soldiers, and as enemies
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