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Sweden–Finland
Sweden–Finland
Sweden–Finland
(Finnish: Ruotsi-Suomi, Swedish: Sverige-Finland) is a Finnish historiographical term referring to Sweden
Sweden
from the Kalmar Union to the Napoleonic wars, i.e. from the 14th to the early 19th century.[1][2] In 1809, the realm was split after the Finnish war
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History Of Finland
The history of Finland
Finland
begins around 9,000 BC during the end of the last glacial period. Stone Age
Stone Age
cultures were Kunda, Comb Ceramic, Corded Ware, Kiukainen and Pöljä cultures. Finnish Bronze Age started approximately 1,500 BC and the Iron Age
Iron Age
from approximately 500 BC and lasted until 1,300 AD
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Åland Islands
The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
or Åland (Swedish: Åland, IPA: [ˈoːland]; Finnish: Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
belonging to Finland. It is autonomous, demilitarised and is the only monolingually Swedish-speaking region in Finland. It is the smallest region of Finland, constituting 0.49% of its land area and 0.50% of its population. Åland comprises Fasta Åland
Fasta Åland
on which 90% of the population resides[6] and a further 6,500 skerries and islands to its east.[7] Fasta Åland
Fasta Åland
is separated from the coast of Sweden
Sweden
by 38 kilometres (24 mi) of open water to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Historiography
Historiography
Historiography
is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom, that of WWII, the British Empire, early Islam, and China—and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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Finnish War
Russian Empire France Spain Denmark–Norway Sweden United Kingdom Portugal[1]Commanders and leadersFyodor Buxhoeveden Bogdan von Knorring Pyotr Bagration Barclay de Tolly Nikolay Ivanovich Demidov Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von DöbelnStrengthAugust 1808: 95,000+ soldiers August 1808: 36,000+ soldiersv t eFinnish WarPyhäjoki Siikajoki Gotland Revolax Sveaborg Pulkkila Lemo Nykarleby Vaasa Kokonsaari Lapua Rimito Kramp Sandöström Kauhajoki Alavus Karstula Grönvikssund Ruona and Salmi Ömossa Jutas Oravais Palva Sund Taivassalo Koljonvirta Hörnefors Sävar Ratanv t eRusso–Swedish warsMiddle Ages 1495–97 1554–57 Livonian (1558–83) 1590–95 Ingrian (1610–17) 2nd Northern (1655–60) (1656–58) Great Northern (1700–21) Hats' (1741–43) 1788–90 Finnish (1808–09)v t eNapoleonic WarsThird Coalition Anglo-Spa
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Grand Duchy Of Finland
The Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Swedish: Storfurstendömet Finland, Russian: Великое княжество Финляндское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Finlyandskoye; literally "Grand Principality of Finland") was the predecessor state of modern Finland
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Personal Union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1] A real union, by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.[2] Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King
King
of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Imperial Russia
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Didacticism
Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art.[1][2]Contents1 Overview 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingOverview[edit] The term has its origin in the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word διδακτικός (didaktikos), "related to education and teaching", and signified learning in a fascinating and intriguing manner.[3] Didactic art was meant both to entertain and to instruct. Didactic plays, for instance, were intended to convey a moral theme or other rich truth to the audience.[4][5] An example of didactic writing is Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism
An Essay on Criticism
(1711), which offers a range of advice about critics and criticism
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Lands Of Sweden
The lands of Sweden
Sweden
(Swedish: Sveriges landsdelar) are three traditional parts, essentially three collectives of provinces, in Sweden. These "lands" have no administrative function, and there is no official designation for this subdivision level
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Götaland
Götaland
Götaland
(Swedish: [ˈjøːtaland] ( listen), also Gothia, Gothland,[2][3] Gothenland or Gautland) is one of three lands of Sweden
Sweden
and comprises ten provinces. Geographically it is located in the south of Sweden, bounded to the north by Svealand, with the deep woods of Tiveden, Tylöskog
Tylöskog
and Kolmården
Kolmården
marking the border. Götaland
Götaland
once consisted of petty kingdoms, and their inhabitants were called Gautar in Old Norse[clarification needed]. It is generally agreed that these were the same as the Geats, the people of the hero Beowulf
Beowulf
in England's national epic, Beowulf. A part of today's Götaland
Götaland
merged with Svealand
Svealand
around 1100 and thereby formed Sweden; other parts were at that time either Danish or Norwegian
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Svealand
Svealand
Svealand
( listen (help·info)), Swealand or (rarely or historically) Sweden
Sweden
proper[1] is the historical core region of Sweden. It is located in south central Sweden
Sweden
and is one of three historical lands of Sweden, bounded to the north by Norrland
Norrland
and to the south by Götaland. Deep forests, Tiveden, Tylöskog, and Kolmården, separated Svealand
Svealand
from Götaland
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Norrland
Norrland
Norrland
(Swedish: [ˈnɔrːland] ( listen), "Northlands") is the northernmost, largest, least populated and least densely populated of the three traditional lands of Sweden, consisting of nine provinces. The term Norrland
Norrland
is not used for any administrative purpose, but as a historical region, it is common in everyday language, e.g., in weather forecasts.Contents1 Provinces and counties 2 Geography 3 History 4 Sport 5 In fiction 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksProvinces and counties[edit] Norrland
Norrland
comprises the historical provinces (landskap) Gästrikland, Medelpad, Ångermanland, Hälsingland, Jämtland, Härjedalen, Västerbotten, Norrbotten
Norrbotten
and Lappland, roughly 59 percent of Sweden's total area[1]
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