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Supersonic Aircraft
A supersonic aircraft is an aircraft able to fly faster than the speed of sound ( Mach number
Mach number
1). Supersonic aircraft
Supersonic aircraft
were developed in the second half of the twentieth century and have been used almost entirely for research and military purposes
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Fastjet
Fastjet
Fastjet
Plc (LSE:FJET) is a British/South African-based holding company for a group of low-cost carriers that operate in Africa. The company's stated aim is to become the continent's first low-cost, pan-African airline, and the operation was initially created with the acquisition of Fly540, an airline operating in East Africa; flights in Fastjet's own name commenced in November 2012 in Tanzania.[1] In order to satisfy local ownership and other requirements, the strategy is to create locally incorporated airlines or a series of licensees to operate services, using a common branding, operational standards and sales platform. The initial operation is now run as Fastjet
Fastjet
Tanzania, which recently celebrated its fifth birthday
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Sound
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain.[1] Humans can only hear sound waves as distinct pitches when the frequency lies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound
Sound
above 20 kHz is ultrasound and is not perceptible by humans. Sound
Sound
waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound
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Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force.[2] It was developed as a black project from the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft in the 1960s by Lockheed and its Skunk Works division. American aerospace engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson was responsible for many of the design's innovative concepts. During aerial reconnaissance missions, the SR-71 operated at high speeds and altitudes to allow it to outrace threats. If a surface-to-air missile launch were detected, the standard evasive action was simply to accelerate and outfly the missile.[3] The SR-71 was designed with a reduced radar cross-section. The SR-71 served with the U.S. Air Force from 1964 to 1998
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Low Bypass Turbofan
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the turbo portion refers to a gas turbine engine which achieves mechanical energy from combustion,[1] and the fan, a ducted fan that uses the mechanical energy from the gas turbine to accelerate air rearwards. Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine (through the combustion chamber), in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine. A turbofan thus can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of those contributing to the thrust. The ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core compared to the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio
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Parasitic Drag
Parasitic drag
Parasitic drag
is drag that results when an object is moved through a fluid medium. In the case of aerodynamic drag, the fluid medium is the atmosphere. Parasitic drag
Parasitic drag
is a combination of form drag, skin friction drag and interference drag. The other components of total drag, induced drag, wave drag, and ram drag (see ram pressure), are separate types of drag, and are not components of parasitic drag. Parasitic drag
Parasitic drag
does not result from the induction of lift on the body, hence it is considered parasitic.Contents1 Description 2 Form drag 3 Profile drag 4 Interference drag 5 Skin friction 6 See also 7 ReferencesDescription[edit] In flight, induced drag results from the lift force that must be produced so that the craft can maintain level flight. Induced drag
Induced drag
is greater at lower speeds where a high angle of attack is required
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Pratt & Whitney J58
The Pratt & Whitney J58 (company designation JT11D-20) was a jet engine that powered the Lockheed A-12, and subsequently the YF-12 and the SR-71 aircraft
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Ramjet
A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor. Because ramjets cannot produce thrust at zero airspeed, they cannot move an aircraft from a standstill. A ramjet-powered vehicle, therefore, requires an assisted take-off like a rocket assist to accelerate it to a speed where it begins to produce thrust. Ramjets work most efficiently at supersonic speeds around Mach 3 (2,300 mph; 3,700 km/h). This type of engine can operate up to speeds of Mach 6 (4,600 mph; 7,400 km/h). Ramjets can be particularly useful in applications requiring a small and simple mechanism for high-speed use, such as missiles
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Transonic Flight
In aeronautics, transonic (or transsonic) flight is flying at or near the speed of sound (1,235 km/h (767 mph) at sea level under average conditions), relative to the air though which the vehicle is traveling. A typical convention used is to define transonic flight as speeds in the range of Mach 0.8 to 1.0 (965–1,235 km/h (600–767 mph) at sea level). This condition depends not only on the travel speed of the craft, but also on the temperature of the airflow in the vehicle's local environment. It is formally defined as the range of speeds between the critical Mach number, when some parts of the airflow over an air vehicle or airfoil are supersonic, and a higher speed, typically near Mach 1.2, when most of the airflow is supersonic
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Explosion
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases. Supersonic
Supersonic
explosions created by high explosives are known as detonations and travel via supersonic shock waves. Subsonic explosions are created by low explosives through a slower burning process known as deflagration
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Duralumin
Duralumin
Duralumin
(also called duraluminum, duraluminium, duralum, duralium or dural) is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. Its use as a trade name is obsolete, and today the term mainly refers to aluminium–copper alloys, designated as the 2000 series by the International Alloy Designation System (IADS), as with 2014 and 2024 alloys used in airframe fabrication.Contents1 Alloying elements 2 History 3 Aviation applications 4 Corrosion
Corrosion
protection 5 Applications 6 Popular culture 7 ReferencesAlloying elements[edit] In addition to aluminium, the main materials in duralumin are copper, manganese and magnesium. Duralumin
Duralumin
is 95% aluminium, 4% copper, 0.5% magnesium, and 0.5% manganese. History[edit] Duralumin
Duralumin
was developed by the German metallurgist Alfred Wilm at Dürener Metallwerke AG
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Thunder
Thunder
Thunder
is the sound caused by lightning. Depending on the distance and nature of the lightning, it can range from a sharp, loud crack to a long, low rumble (brontide). The sudden increase in pressure and temperature from lightning produces rapid expansion of the air surrounding and within a bolt of lightning. In turn, this expansion of air creates a sonic shock wave, similar to a sonic boom, often referred to as a "thunderclap" or "peal of thunder".ThunderA short sample of a crack of thunder during the sound of falling rainProblems playing this file? See media help.Contents1 Cause 2 Etymology 3 Distance calculation 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCause[edit] The cause of thunder has been the subject of centuries of speculation and scientific inquiry
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Bullet
A bullet is a component of firearm ammunition and is the projectile expelled from the firearm's barrel. The term is from Middle French and originated as the diminutive of the word boulle (boullet), which means "small ball".[1] Bullets are made of a variety of materials such as copper, lead, steel, polymer, rubber and even wax. They are available either singly as in muzzleloading and cap and ball firearms,[2] or as a component of paper cartridges[3] and much more commonly metallic cartridges.[4] Bullets are made in a large number of shapes and constructions depending on the intended applications, including specialized functions such as hunting, target shooting, training and combat. Though the word "bullet" is often used incorrectly in colloquial language to refer to a cartridge, a bullet is not a cartridge but rather a component of one.[5] A cartridge is a combination package of the bullet, casing, propellant and primer
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Bullwhip
A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip, usually made of braided leather, designed as a tool for working with livestock. Bullwhips are pastoral tools, traditionally used to control livestock in open country. A bullwhip's length, flexibility, and tapered design allows it to be thrown in such a way that, toward the end of the throw, part of the whip exceeds the speed of sound—thereby creating a small sonic boom.[1] Many modern "sport" whip crackers claim that the bullwhip was rarely, if ever, used to strike cattle, but this is a matter for debate.Contents1 History 2 Anatomy of the bullwhip 3 Use as hunting weapon 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The origins of the bullwhip are also a matter for debate and, given the perishable nature of leather, are likely to remain so. Difficulties in tracing its development also arise from regional and national variations in nomenclature
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Fineness Ratio
Fineness ratio
Fineness ratio
is a term used in naval architecture and aerospace engineering to describe the overall shape of a streamlined body. Specifically, it is the ratio of the length of a body to its maximum width; shapes that are "short and fat" have a low fineness ratio, those that are "long and skinny" have high fineness ratios. Aircraft that spend time at supersonic speeds—for example Concorde—generally have high fineness ratios. At speeds below critical mach, one of the primary forms of drag is skin friction. As the name implies, this is drag caused by the interaction of the airflow with the aircraft's skin. To minimize this drag, the aircraft should be designed to minimize the exposed skin area, or "wetted surface"
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Civil Aviation
Civil aviation
Civil aviation
is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency. Civil aviation
Civil aviation
includes two major categories:Scheduled air transport, including all passenger and cargo flights operating on regularly scheduled routes; and General aviation
General aviation
(GA), including all other civil flights, private or commercialAlthough scheduled air transport is the larger operation in terms of passenger numbers, GA is larger in the number of flights (and flight hours, in the U.S.[1]) In the U.S., GA carries 166 million passengers each year,[2] more than any individual airline, though less than all the airlines combined
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