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Superorder
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Taxonomic Order
Taxonomic sequence (also known as systematic, phyletic or taxonomic order) is a sequence followed in listing of taxa which aids ease of use and roughly reflects the evolutionary relationships among the taxa. Taxonomic sequences can exist for taxa within any rank, that is, a list of families, genera, species can each have a sequence. Early biologists used the concept of "age" or "primitiveness" of the groups in question to derive an order of arrangement, with "older" or more "primitive" groups being listed first and more recent or "advanced" ones last. A modern understanding of evolutionary biology has brought about a more robust framework for the taxonomic ordering of lists. A list may be seen as a rough one-dimensional representation of a phylogenetic tree. Taxonomic sequences are essentially heuristic devices that help in arrangements of linear systems such as books and information retrieval systems
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Catarrhini
Cercopithecoidea
Cercopithecoidea
( Old World
Old World
monkeys) Hominoidea
Hominoidea
(apes) Catarrhini
Catarrhini
is one of the two subdivisions of the simians, the other being the plathyrrhine ( New World
New World
monkeys). The Catarrhini
Catarrhini
contains the Old World
Old World
monkeys and the apes; the latter of which are in turn further divided into the lesser apes or gibbons and the great apes, consisting of the orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The Catarrhine are all native to Africa
Africa
and Asia
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is also informally known as the ICZN Code, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate:How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature[1] Which name must be used in case of name conflicts How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature. This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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Prefix
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.[1] Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy
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Parareptilia
Parareptilia
Parareptilia
("at the side of reptiles") is a subclass or clade of reptiles which is variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida. Whether the term is valid depends on the phylogenetic position of turtles, whose relationships to other reptilian groups are still uncertain. History of classification[edit] The name Parareptilia
Parareptilia
was coined by Olson in 1947 to refer to an extinct group of Paleozoic
Paleozoic
reptiles, as opposed to the rest of the reptiles or Eureptilia
Eureptilia
("true reptiles").Life restoration of Nyctiphruretus
Nyctiphruretus
acudensThe name fell into disuse until it was revived by cladistic studies, to refer to those anapsids that were thought to be unrelated to turtles. Gauthier et al
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Primatomorpha
The Primatomorpha
Primatomorpha
are a mirorder of mammals containing two orders: the Dermoptera
Dermoptera
or colugos and the Primates
Primates
(Plesiadapiformes, Tarsiiformes, Simiiformes). The term "Primatomorpha" first appeared in the general scientific literature in 1991 (K.C. Beard) and 1992 (Kalandadze, Rautian). Major DNA sequence analyses of predominantly nuclear sequences (Murphy et al., 2001) support the Euarchonta
Euarchonta
hypothesis, while a major study investigating mitochondrial sequences supports a different tree topology (Arnason et al., 2002). A study investigating retrotransposon presence/absence data has claimed strong support for Euarchonta (Kriegs et al., 2007). Some interpretations of the molecular data link Primates
Primates
and Dermoptera
Dermoptera
in a clade (mirorder) known as Primatomorpha, which is the sister of Scandentia
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Procolophonomorpha
Procolophonomorpha
Procolophonomorpha
is an order or clade of early reptiles that appeared during the Middle Permian. It constitutes a diverse assemblage that includes a number of lizard-like forms, as well as more diverse types such as the pareiasaurs. The most important subclade, Procolophonia, is traditionally thought to be ancestral to (and hence to include) turtles. Lee 1995, 1996, 1997 argues that turtles evolved from pareiasaurs, but this view is by no means held unanimously
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Procolophonia
The Procolophonia
Procolophonia
are a suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian
Permian
till the end of the Triassic
Triassic
period. They were originally included as a suborder of the Cotylosauria
Cotylosauria
(later renamed Captorhinida
Captorhinida
Carroll 1988) but are now considered a clade of Parareptilia
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Simiiformes
The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans). The simian and tarsier lines of haplorhines diverged about 60 million years ago (during the Cenozoic era). Forty million years ago, simians from Africa colonized South America, giving rise to the New World monkeys
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Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
is an extinct clade of procolophonomorph parareptiles from the early Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch (middle Sakmarian stage) to the latest Triassic
Triassic
period (latest Rhaetian
Rhaetian
stage) of Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America
North America
and South America.[1][2] Phylogeny[edit] Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
was named Michael S. Y. Lee in 1995, and defined as the node-based taxon formed by Lanthanosuchoidea
Lanthanosuchoidea
and Pareiasauria
Pareiasauria
and all its descendants.[3] The clade Ankyramorpha
Ankyramorpha
named by the paleontologists Michael deBraga and Robert R
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Michael Benton
Michael James "Mike" Benton[5] FRS[3] (born 8 April 1956) is a British palaeontologist, and professor of vertebrate palaeontology in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol.[6] His published work has mostly concentrated on the evolution of Triassic reptiles but he has also worked on extinction events and faunal changes in the fossil record.[4][7][8]Contents1 Education 2 Research 3 Awards and honours 4 Publications 5 References 6 External linksEducation[edit] Benton was educated at the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
and Newcastle University where he was awarded a PhD in 1981. Research[edit] Benton's research investigates palaeobiology, palaeontology, and macroevolution.[4][9][10] Benton is the author of several palaeontology text books (e.g
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Invertebrate
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include insects; crabs, lobsters and their kin; snails, clams, octopuses and their kin; starfish, sea-urchins and their kin; jellyfish, and worms. The majority of animal species are invertebrates; one estimate puts the figure at 97%.[1] Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata.[2] Some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates
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Armen Takhtajan
Armen Leonovich Takhtajan
Takhtajan
or Takhtajian (Armenian: Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Russian: Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n
Takhtadzhi︠a︡n
or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet-Armenian botanist, one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography. His other interests included morphology of flowering plants, paleobotany, and the flora of the Caucasus. He was born in Shusha
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Botanist
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze".[1][2][3] Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
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Augustus Quirinus Rivinus
Augustus Quirinus Rivinus
Augustus Quirinus Rivinus
(9 December 1652 – 20 December 1723), also known as August Bachmann or A. Q. Bachmann, was a German physician and botanist who helped to develop better ways of classifying plants.Contents1 Life and work 2 Principal works 3 Associated eponyms 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingLife and work[edit]"Horminum tingitanum" (Salvia tingitana) from Ordo Plantarum 1690Rivinus was born in Leipzig, Germany, and studied at the University of Leipzig
Leipzig
(1669–1671), continued his studies in the University of Helmstedt (where he received M.D. in 1676). In 1677, he started lecturing in medicine at the University of Leipzig, in 1691 appointed to two chairs, that of physiology and of botany, and made the curator of the University medical garden. In 1701, he became professor of pathology, in 1719, professor of therapeutics and permanent dean of the Faculty of Medicine
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