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Sundial
A SUNDIAL is a device that tells the time of day by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky . In the narrowest sense of the word, it consists of a flat plate (the _dial_) and a _gnomon _, which casts a shadow onto the dial. As the Sun appears to move across the sky, the shadow aligns with different _hour-lines_, which are marked on the dial to indicate the time of day. The _style_ is the time-telling edge of the gnomon, though a single point or _nodus_ may be used. The gnomon casts a broad shadow; the shadow of the style shows the time. The gnomon may be a rod, wire, or elaborately decorated metal casting. The style must be parallel to the axis of the Earth\'s rotation for the sundial to be accurate throughout the year. The style's angle from horizontal is equal to the sundial's geographical latitude . In a broader sense, a sundial is any device that uses the Sun's altitude or azimuth (or both) to show the time. In addition to their time-telling function, sundials are valued as decorative objects, literary metaphors, and objects of mathematical study. It is common for inexpensive, mass-produced decorative sundials to have incorrectly aligned gnomons and hour-lines, which cannot be adjusted to tell correct time
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Sundial (other)
SUNDIAL or SUN DIAL may refer to: * Sundial
Sundial
, a timekeeping device * Analemmatic sundial , showing more than just the time of day * Digital sundial , with digital display * History of sundials
History of sundials
* Scottish sundial , decorative sundials of the renaissance period * Kirkdale sundial
Kirkdale sundial
, Saxon sundial * Whitehurst font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title SUNDIAL. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sundial_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Aldeburgh
ALDEBURGH /ˈɔːlbrə/ is a coastal town in the English county
English county
of Suffolk
Suffolk
. Located on the North Sea
North Sea
coast to the north of the River Alde , the town is notable for having been the home of composer Benjamin Britten
Benjamin Britten
and as the centre of the international Aldeburgh Festival of arts at nearby Snape Maltings founded by him in 1948. It remains an artistic and literary centre with an annual Poetry Festival and several food festivals as well as other cultural events. It is a former Tudor port and was granted Borough status in 1529 by Henry VIII . Its historic buildings include a 16th-century moot hall and a Napoleonic-era Martello Tower
Martello Tower
. Second homes make up roughly a third of the town's residential property. The town is a tourist destination with visitors attracted by its Blue Flag shingle beach and fisherman huts, where fresh fish are sold daily, and Aldeburgh
Aldeburgh
Yacht Club as well as cultural attractions. Two family-run fish and chip shops are cited as among the best in the UK
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Boise, Idaho
BOISE (/bɔɪsi/ ( listen ) ) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho
Idaho
, as well as the county seat of Ada County . Located on the Boise River
Boise River
in southwestern Idaho, the population of Boise at the 2010 Census
Census
was 205,671, the 99th largest in the nation. Its estimated population in 2016 was 223,154. Downtown Boise in Fall 2013 The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area , also known as the Treasure Valley, includes five counties with a combined population of 664,422, the most populous metropolitan area in Idaho. It contains the state's three largest cities; Boise, Nampa , and Meridian . Boise is the third most populous metropolitan area and city in the United States' Pacific Northwest region, behind Seattle and Portland
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National Gardens Of Athens
The NATIONAL GARDEN (formerly the ROYAL GARDEN) (Greek : Εθνικός Κήπος) is a public park of 15.5 hectares (38 acres) in the center of the Greek capital, Athens
Athens
. It is located directly behind the Greek Parliament building (The Old Palace) and continues to the South to the area where the Zappeion
Zappeion
is located, across from the Panathenaiko or Kalimarmaro Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
of the 1896 Olympic Games . The Garden also encloses some ancient ruins, tambourines and Corinthian capitals of columns, mosaics , and other features. On the Southeast side are the busts of Ioannis Kapodistrias , the first governor of Greece, and of the Philhellene Jean-Gabriel Eynard . On the South side are the busts of the celebrated Greek poets Dionysios Solomos , author of the Greek National Hymn, and Aristotelis Valaoritis . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 The national garden * 2 The national garden * 3 Services * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 External links * 7 References HISTORYThe Royal Garden was commissioned by Queen Amalia in 1838 and completed by 1840. It was designed by the German agronomist Friedrich Schmidt who imported over 500 species of plants and a variety of animals including peacocks, ducks, and turtles. Unfortunately for many of the plants, the dry Mediterranean climate proved too harsh and they did not survive
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα, _ Elláda _ ), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, _Ellinikí Dimokratía_ ), historically also known as HELLAS ( Ancient Greek : Ἑλλάς, _Hellás_ , modern pronunciation _Ellás_), is a country in southeastern Europe , with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki . Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula , it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine geographic regions : Macedonia , Central Greece , the Peloponnese , Thessaly , Epirus , the Aegean Islands (including the Dodecanese and Cyclades ), Thrace , Crete , and the Ionian Islands . The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland , the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south
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Time Of Day
An HOUR (symbol : H; also abbreviated HR.) is a unit of time conventionally reckoned as  1⁄24 of a day and scientifically reckoned as 3,599–3,601 seconds , depending on conditions. The SEASONAL, TEMPORAL, or UNEQUAL HOUR was established in the ancient Near East as  1⁄12 of the night or daytime . Such hours varied by season , latitude , and weather . It was subsequently divided into 60 minutes , each of 60 seconds . Its East Asian equivalent was the shi , which was  1⁄12 of the apparent solar day ; a similar system was eventually developed in Europe which measured its EQUAL or EQUINOCTIAL HOUR as  1⁄24 of such days measured from noon to noon. The minor variations of this unit were eventually smoothed by making it  1⁄24 of the mean solar day , based on the measure of the sun's transit along the celestial equator rather than along the ecliptic . This was finally abandoned due to the minor slowing caused by the Earth
Earth
's tidal deceleration by the Moon
Moon
. In the modern metric system , hours are an accepted unit of time equal to 3,600 seconds but an hour of Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) may incorporate a positive or negative leap second , making it last 3,599 or 3,601 seconds, in order to keep it within 0.9 seconds of universal time , which is based on measurements of the mean solar day at 0° longitude
0° longitude

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Position Of The Sun
The position of the Sun
Sun
in the sky is a function of both time and the geographic coordinates of the observer on the surface of the Earth
Earth
. As the Earth
Earth
orbits the Sun
Sun
during the course of the year , the Sun appears to move with respect to the fixed stars on the celestial sphere , along a planar path called the ecliptic . The Earth\'s rotation about its axis causes the fixed stars to move across the sky in a way that depends on the observer's geographic latitude . The time when a given fixed star transits the observer's meridian depends on the geographic longitude . To find the Sun's position for a given observer at a given time, one may therefore proceed in three steps: * calculate the Sun's position in the ecliptic coordinate system , * convert to the equatorial coordinate system , and * convert to the horizontal coordinate system , for the observer's local time and position.This calculation is useful in astronomy , navigation , surveying , meteorology , climatology , solar energy , and for designing sundials
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Sky
The SKY (or CELESTIAL DOME) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth , including the atmosphere and outer space . In the field of astronomy , the sky is also called the celestial sphere . This is viewed from Earth's surface as an abstract dome on which the Sun , stars , planets , and Moon appear to be traveling . The celestial sphere is conventionally divided into designated areas called constellations . Usually, the term _sky_ is used informally as the point of view from the Earth's surface; however, the meaning and usage can vary. In some cases, such as in discussing the weather , the sky refers to only the lower, more dense portions of the atmosphere. During daylight , the sky appears to be blue because air scatters more blue sunlight than red. At night, the sky appears to be a mostly dark surface or region spangled with stars. During the day, the Sun can be seen in the sky unless obscured by clouds . In the night sky (and to some extent during the day) the Moon, planets and stars are visible in the sky. Some of the natural phenomena seen in the sky are clouds , rainbows , and aurorae . Lightning and precipitation can also be seen in the sky during storms . Birds , insects , aircraft , and kites are often considered to fly in the sky. Due to human activities, smog during the day and light pollution during the night are often seen above large cities
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Gnomon
A GNOMON (, from Greek γνώμων, _gnōmōn_, literally: "one that knows or examines" ) is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow . The term has come to be used for a variety of purposes in mathematics and other fields. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Pinhole gnomons * 3 Orientation * 4 In popular culture * 5 Footnotes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY A gnomon as in Euclid book II A painted stick from 2300 BCE found in China is the oldest known gnomon. Anaximander
Anaximander
(610–546 BC) is credited with introducing this Babylonian instrument to the Greeks
Greeks
. Oenopides used the phrase _drawn gnomon-wise_ to describe a line drawn perpendicular to another. Later, the term was used for an L-shaped instrument like a steel square used to draw right angles. This shape may explain its use to describe a shape formed by cutting a smaller square from a larger one. Euclid extended the term to the plane figure formed by removing a similar parallelogram from a corner of a larger parallelogram. Indeed, the gnomon is the increment between two successive figurate numbers , including square and triangular numbers. Hero of Alexandria defined a gnomon as that which, when added to an entity (number or shape), makes a new entity similar to the starting entity
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Shadow
A SHADOW is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object. It occupies all of the three-dimensional volume behind an object with light in front of it. The cross section of a shadow is a two-dimensional silhouette , or a reverse projection of the object blocking the light. CONTENTS * 1 Point and non-point light sources * 2 Astronomy * 3 Daytime variation * 4 Propagation speed * 5 Color * 6 Photography * 7 Three-dimensional shadows * 8 Shadow
Shadow
inversions * 9 Analogous concepts * 10 Cultural aspects * 11 Gallery * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links POINT AND NON-POINT LIGHT SOURCES Umbra, penumbra and antumbra
Umbra, penumbra and antumbra
A point source of light casts only a simple shadow, called an "UMBRA". For a non-point or "extended" source of light, the shadow is divided into the umbra, penumbra and antumbra . The wider the light source, the more blurred the shadow becomes. If two penumbras overlap, the shadows appear to attract and merge. This is known as the SHADOW BLISTER EFFECT . The outlines of the shadow zones can be found by tracing the rays of light emitted by the outermost regions of the extended light source. The umbra region does not receive any direct light from any part of the light source, and is the darkest. A viewer located in the umbra region cannot directly see any part of the light source
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Sun
The SUN is the star at the center of the Solar System
Solar System
. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma , with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process . It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth
Earth
. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen , carbon , neon , and iron . The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on its spectral class . As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf. It formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud . Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System
Solar System
. The central mass became so hot and dense that it eventually initiated nuclear fusion in its core . It is thought that almost all stars form by this process . The Sun
Sun
is roughly middle-aged; it has not changed dramatically for more than four billion years, and will remain fairly stable for more than another five billion years
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Diurnal Motion
DIURNAL MOTION (Latin : _diurnus_, lit. 'daily', from _dies_, lit. "day") is an astronomical term referring to the apparent daily motion of stars around Earth
Earth
, or more precisely around the two celestial poles . It is caused by the Earth\'s rotation around its axis , so almost every star appears to move along a circular arc path called the DIURNAL CIRCLE. The time for one complete rotation is 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.09 seconds (1 sidereal day ). The first experimental demonstration of this motion was conducted by Léon Foucault . RELATIVE DIRECTIONThe relative direction of diurnal motion in the Northern Celestial Hemisphere are as follows: * Facing north, below Polaris
Polaris
: rightward, or eastward * Facing north, above Polaris: leftward, or westward * Facing south: rightward, or westwardThus, northern circumpolar stars move counterclockwise around Polaris , the north pole star . At the North Pole
North Pole
, the cardinal directions do not apply to diurnal motion. Within the circumpolar circle, all the stars move simply rightward, or looking directly overhead, counterclockwise around the zenith , where Polaris
Polaris
is. Southern Celestial Hemisphere observers are to replace north with south, left with right, and Polaris
Polaris
with Sigma Octantis , sometimes called the south pole star
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Earth's Rotation
EARTH\'S ROTATION is the rotation of Planet Earth
Earth
around its own axis . Earth
Earth
rotates eastward , in prograde motion . As viewed from the north pole star Polaris
Polaris
, Earth
Earth
turns counterclockwise . The North Pole
North Pole
, also known as the Geographic North Pole
North Pole
or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. This point is distinct from Earth's North Magnetic Pole . The South Pole
South Pole
is the other point where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface, in Antarctica
Antarctica
. Earth
Earth
rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the sun and once every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars (see below ). Earth's rotation
Earth's rotation
is slowing slightly with time; thus, a day was shorter in the past. This is due to the tidal effects the Moon has on Earth's rotation. Atomic clocks show that a modern-day is longer by about 1.7 milliseconds than a century ago, slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds . Analysis of historical astronomical records shows a slowing trend of 2.3 milliseconds per century since the 8th century BCE
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Latitude
In geography , LATITUDE is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north –south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or _parallels_, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the _geodetic latitude_ as defined in the following sections. Also defined are six _auxiliary latitudes_ which are used in special applications
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Altitude
ALTITUDE or HEIGHT (sometimes known as DEPTH) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context. Although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage. Vertical distance measurements in the "down" direction are commonly referred to as depth. CONTENTS * 1 In aviation * 2 In atmospheric studies * 2.1 Atmospheric regions * 2.2 High altitude and low pressure * 2.3 Temperature profile * 3 Effects on organisms * 3.1 Humans * 3.1.1 Athletes * 3.2 Other organisms * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links IN AVIATION See also: Sea level § Aviation Vertical distance comparison In aviation, the term altitude can have several meanings, and is always qualified by explicitly adding a modifier (e.g. "true altitude"), or implicitly through the context of the communication. Parties exchanging altitude information must be clear which definition is being used. Aviation altitude is measured using either mean sea level (MSL) or local ground level (above ground level, or AGL) as the reference datum
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