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Sumner Welles
BENJAMIN SUMNER WELLES (October 14, 1892 – September 24, 1961) was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service . He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1936 to 1943, during FDR's presidency. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Diplomatic career * 2.1 Latin America * 2.2 Years out of government service * 2.3 Cuba
Cuba
* 2.4 World War II * 2.5 Soviet occupation of the Baltics * 2.6 Rivalries * 2.7 Resignation * 3 Later years * 4 Personal life * 4.1 Legacy * 5 Works * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 Cuba
Cuba
* 8 External links EARLY LIFEBenjamin Sumner Welles
Sumner Welles
was born in New York City
New York City
, the son of Benjamin J
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " (
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Under Secretary Of State
UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE (U/S) is a title used by senior officials of the United States Department of State who rank above the Assistant Secretaries and below the Deputy Secretaries . From 1919 to 1972, the Under Secretary was the second-ranking official at the Department of State (immediately beneath the United States Secretary of State ), serving as the Secretary's principal deputy, chief assistant, and Acting Secretary in the event of the Secretary's absence. Prior second-ranking positions had been the Chief Clerk , the Assistant Secretary of State, and the Counselor . Prior to 1944, a number of offices in the Department reported directly to the Under Secretary. In July 1972, the position of Deputy Secretary superseded that of Under Secretary of State
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William Phillips (diplomat)
WILLIAM PHILLIPS (May 30, 1878 – February 23, 1968) was a career United States
United States
diplomat who served twice as an Under Secretary of State . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Personal life * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEPhillips was born on May 30, 1878 in Beverly, Massachusetts . His parents were John Charles Phillips, Jr. (1838–1885), who married Anna Tucker in London, England on October 23, 1874. His older brother was John Charles Phillips (1876–1938), a prominent zoologist, ornithologist and environmentalist. His sister, Martha Phillips, was married to Andrew James Peters (1872–1938), a U.S. Congressman and former Mayor of Boston
Mayor of Boston

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Jefferson Caffery
JEFFERSON CAFFERY (December 1, 1886 – April 13, 1974) was a distinguished American diplomat. He served as U.S. ambassador to El Salvador (1926–1928), Colombia
Colombia
(1928–1933), Cuba
Cuba
(1934–1937), Brazil
Brazil
(1937–1944), France
France
(1944–1949), and Egypt
Egypt
(1949–1955). CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Personal life * 3 Posthumous recognition * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CAREERCaffery launched his career of international diplomacy in 1911 when he entered the Foreign Service as second secretary of the legation in Caracas in 1911 during the William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
administration
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United States Ambassador To Cuba
The UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Cuba , and serves as the head of the Embassy of the United States in Havana . Direct bilateral diplomatic relations did not exist between the two countries from 1961 to 2015. President Dwight D. Eisenhower severed relations following the Cuban Revolution on January 3, 1961. Relations were subsequently restored by Cuban President Raul Castro and President Barack Obama on July 20, 2015. With the restoration of relations in 2015, the president may nominate an ambassador, though the position has remained vacant since 1960. The embassy is currently run by a Chargé d\'affaires ad interim , Scott Hamilton . The Chargé d'affaires and the embassy staff at large work in the American Embassy on the Malecón across from the Plaza de la Revolución in Havana, Cuba . Obama officially nominated DeLaurentis on September 27, 2016
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Harry F. Guggenheim
HARRY FRANK GUGGENHEIM (August 23, 1890 – January 22, 1971) was an American businessman, diplomat, publisher, philanthropist, aviator, and horseman. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics * 3 Newsday * 4 Thoroughbred horse racing * 5 Death * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links LIFEHe was born August 23, 1890, in West End, New Jersey to Florence Shloss and Daniel Guggenheim . He graduated in 1907 from the Columbia Grammar School in Manhattan, and then he attended the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University . He later left Yale and served a three-year apprenticeship at the American Smelting and Refining Company in Mexico. The company was owned by the Guggenheim family. He resumed his education in 1910 at England's Pembroke College at Cambridge University . He earned his B.A. and an M.A. from Cambridge, both in 1913
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New York, NY
Bronx , Kings (Brooklyn) , New York (Manhattan) , Queens
Queens
, Richmond (Staten Island) ------------------------- HISTORIC COLONIES New Netherland Province of New York SETTLED 1624 CONSOLIDATED 1898 NAMED FOR James, Duke of York
Duke of York
GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor–Council • BODY New York City Council • MAYOR Bill de Blasio (D ) AREA • TOTAL 468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2) • LAND 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) • WATER 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) • METRO 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2) ELEVATION 33 ft (10 m) POPULATION (2010 ) • TOTAL 8,175,133 • ESTIMATE (2016) 8,537,673 • RANK 1st, U.S
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Bernardsville, NJ
BERNARDSVILLE /ˈbɜːrnərdzvɪl/ is a borough in Somerset County , New Jersey , United States. In 2000, Bernardsville had the 10th-highest per capita income in the state. As of the 2010 United States Census , the borough's population was 7,707, reflecting an increase of 362 (+4.9%) from the 7,345 counted in the 2000 Census , which had in turn increased by 748 (+11.3%) from the 6,597 counted in the 1990 Census . Bernardsville was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 6, 1924, from portions of Bernards Township , based on the results of a referendum held on April 29, 1924. The borough was named for Sir Francis Bernard, 1st Baronet , who served as governor of the Province of New Jersey. Bernardsville is often mispronounced as "Bern-ARDS-ville" as opposed to the correct parochial pronunciation "BERN-ards-ville"
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Diplomacy
DIPLOMACY is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states . It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians
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United States Foreign Service
The UNITED STATES FOREIGN SERVICE is the diplomatic service of the United States federal government under the aegis of the United States Department of State
Department of State
. It consists of approximately 15,000 professionals carrying out the foreign policy of the United States and aiding U.S. citizens abroad. Created in 1924 by the Rogers Act , the Foreign Service combined all consular and diplomatic services of the U.S. government into one administrative unit. In addition to the unit's function, the Rogers Act defined a personnel system under which the United States
United States
Secretary of State is authorized to assign diplomats abroad. Members of the Foreign Service are selected through a series of written and oral examinations . They serve at any of the 265 United States diplomatic missions around the world, including embassies , consulates , and other facilities
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency -------------------------FIRST TERM * 1932 campaign * Election * 1st Inauguration * First 100 days * New Deal * Glass-Steagall Act * WPA * Social Security * SEC * Fireside Chats -------------------------SECOND TERM * 1936 campaign * Election * 2nd Inauguration * Supreme Court Packing * National Recovery Act * 1937 Recession * March of Dimes * Pre-war foreign policy -------------------------THIRD TERM * 1940 campaign * Election * 3rd Inauguration * WORLD WAR II* World War II * Attack on Pearl Harbor * Infamy Speech * Atlantic Charter * Japanese Internment * Tehran Conference * United Nations * D-Day * Second Bill of Rights * G.I
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New York City
Bronx , Kings (Brooklyn) , New York
York
(Manhattan) , Queens
Queens
, Richmond (Staten Island) ------------------------- HISTORIC COLONIES New Netherland
New Netherland
Province of New York
Province of New York
SETTLED 1624 CONSOLIDATED 1898 NAMED FOR James, Duke of York
York
GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor–Council • BODY New York City Council
New York City Council
• MAYOR Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
(D ) AREA • TOTAL 468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2) • LAND 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) • WATER 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) • METRO 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2) ELEVATION 33 ft (10 m) POPULATION (2010 ) • TOTAL 8,175,133 • ESTIMATE (2016) 8,537,673 • RANK 1st, U.S
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Charles Sumner
CHARLES SUMNER (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the anti-slavery forces in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the U.S. Senate during the American Civil War
American Civil War
working to destroy the Confederacy , free all the slaves, and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction , he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen . Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the 1830s and 1840s before coalescing in the 1850s as the Republican Party , the affiliation with which he became best known
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American Civil War
Union victory * Dissolution of the Confederate States * U.S. territorial integrity preserved * Slavery abolished * Beginning of the Reconstruction Era BELLIGERENTS United States Confederate States COMMANDERS AND LEADERSABRAHAM LINCOLN Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade _and others _ JEFFERSON DAVIS Robert E. Lee J.E. Johnston P. G. T. Beauregard A.S
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Reconstruction Era Of The United States
The term RECONSTRUCTION ERA, in the context of the history of the United States , has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War (1861 to 1865); the second sense focuses on the attempted transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress, with the reconstruction of state and society. With the three Reconstruction Amendments , the era saw the first amendments to the US Constitution in decades. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought; the white supremacist vision, which included terror and violence; and the emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship and Constitutional equality for African Americans
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