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Summit
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peck with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point end route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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National Geographic
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, formerly the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded. It primarily contains articles about science, geography, history, and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest
Controlling interest
in the magazine has been held by 21st Century Fox since 2015. The magazine is published monthly, and additional map supplements are also included with subscriptions. It is available in a traditional printed edition and through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued
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Earth Science
EARTH SCIENCE or GEOSCIENCE is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to the planet Earth
Earth
. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth
Earth
science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth
Earth
science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science , but with a much older history. “ Earth
Earth
science” is a broad term that encompasses four main branches of study, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth
Earth
and its neighbors in space
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Atmospheric Sciences
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal) * v * t * e ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES is an umbrella term for the study of the Earth\'s atmosphere , its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology
Meteorology
includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Geoid
The GEOID
GEOID
is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth\'s gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides. This surface is extended through the continents (such as with very narrow hypothetical canals). All points on a geoid surface have the same effective potential (the sum of gravitational potential energy and centrifugal potential energy). The geoid can be defined at any value of gravitational potential such as within the Earth
Earth
's crust or far out in space, not just at sea level . The force of gravity acts everywhere perpendicular to the geoid, meaning that plumb lines point perpendicular and water levels parallel to the geoid if only gravity and rotational acceleration were at work
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Foot (unit)
The FOOT (pl. FEET; abbreviation: FT; symbol: ′, the prime symbol ) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement . Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly. In both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard . Historically the "foot" was a part of many local systems of units, including the Greek , Roman , Chinese , French , and English systems. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city, and sometimes from trade to trade. Its length was usually between 250 mm and 335 mm and was generally, but not always, subdivided into 12 inches or 16 digits . The United States is the only industrialized nation that uses the international foot and the survey foot (a customary unit of length ) in preference to the meter in its commercial, engineering, and standards activities
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Nevada
NEVADA (/nɪˈvædə/ ; see pronunciations ) is a state in the Western , Mountain West , and Southwestern regions of the United States of America . Nevada
Nevada
is the 7th most extensive , the 34th most populous , but the 9th least densely populated of the 50 United States . Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County , which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital is Carson City . Nevada
Nevada
is officially known as the " Silver
Silver
State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy. It is also known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War (the words "Battle Born" also appear on the state flag ); as the " Sagebrush
Sagebrush
State", for the native plant of the same name ; and as the "Sage-hen State"
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Geodesy
GEODESY ( /dʒiːˈɒdɪsi/ ) , also known as GEODETICS, is the science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth
Earth
's fundamental properties—its geometric shape, its orientation in space, and its gravity field —as well as how they change over time. Geodynamical phenomena include crustal motion, tides , and polar motion , which can be studied by designing global and national control networks , applying space and terrestrial techniques, and relying on datums and coordinate systems
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Geology
GEOLOGY (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse" ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth
Earth
, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology
Geology
can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite , (such as Mars
Mars
or the Moon ). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks
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Oceanography
OCEANOGRAPHY (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean " and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as OCEANOLOGY, is the study of the physical and the biological aspects of the ocean. It is an Earth science covering a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents , waves , and geophysical fluid dynamics ; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy , biology , chemistry , climatology , geography , geology , hydrology , meteorology and physics . Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past
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Physical Geography
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (also known as GEOSYSTEMS or PHYSIOGRAPHY) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography . Physical geography
Physical geography
is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere , hydrosphere , biosphere , and geosphere , as opposed to the cultural or built environment , the domain of human geography . CONTENTS * 1 Sub-branches * 2 Journals and literature * 3 Historical evolution of the discipline * 4 Notable physical geographers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links SUB-BRANCHES A natural arch . Physical Geography
Geography
can be divided into several sub-fields, as follows: * GEOMORPHOLOGY is the field concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past
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Meteorology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal) * v * t * e METEOROLOGY is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics , with a major focus on weather forecasting . The study of meteorology dates back millennia , though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data
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Hydrology
HYDROLOGY is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth
Earth
and other planets, including the water cycle , water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a HYDROLOGIST, working within the fields of earth or environmental science , physical geography , geology or civil and environmental engineering . Using various analytical methods and scientific techniques, they collect and analyze data to help solve water related problems such as environmental preservation , natural disasters , and water management . Hydrology
Hydrology
subdivides into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology. Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology , surface hydrology , hydrogeology , drainage-basin management and water quality , where water plays the central role
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Geophysics
GEOPHYSICS /dʒiːoʊfɪzɪks/ is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth
Earth
and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape ; its gravitational and magnetic fields ; its internal structure and composition ; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics , the generation of magmas , volcanism and rock formation. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere ; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon
Moon
and other planets
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Glaciology
GLACIOLOGY (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos , "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers , or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology
Glaciology
is an interdisciplinary Earth science
Earth science
that integrates geophysics , geology , physical geography , geomorphology , climatology , meteorology , hydrology , biology , and ecology . The impact of glaciers on people includes the fields of human geography and anthropology . The discoveries of water ice on the Moon
Moon
, Mars
Mars
, Europa and Pluto
Pluto
add an extraterrestrial component to the field, as in "astroglaciology"
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