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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Glaciology
Glaciology
Glaciology
(from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology
Glaciology
is an interdisciplinary Earth science
Earth science
that integrates geophysics, geology, physical geography, geomorphology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, biology, and ecology. The impact of glaciers on people includes the fields of human geography and anthropology
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Climbing Gear
A wide range of equipment is used during rock or any other type of climbing. The most popular types of climbing equipment are briefly described in this article
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Crampons
A crampon is a traction device that is attached to footwear to improve mobility on snow and ice during ice climbing.[1] Not only are crampons used during ice climbing, but they are also used for secure travel on snow and ice, such as crossing glaciers, snowfields and icefields, ascending snow slopes, and scaling ice-covered rock. There are three main attachment systems for footwear: step-in, hybrid, and strap bindings. The first two require boots with welts, as a tension lever attaches the crampon to the heel. The last type (strap bindings) are more versatile and can adapt to virtually any boot or shoe, but often do not fit as precisely as the other two types.[2] Oscar Eckenstein designed the first 10-point crampon in 1908, dramatically reducing the need for step cutting
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Ice Axe
An ice axe is a multi-purpose hiking and climbing tool used by mountaineers both in the ascent and descent of routes that involve frozen conditions with snow and/or ice. An ice axe can be held and employed in a number of different ways, depending on the terrain encountered. In its simplest role, the ice axe is used like a walking stick in the uphill hand, the mountaineer holding the head in the center, with the pick pointing to the rear. It can also be buried pick down, the rope tied around the shaft to form a secure anchor on which to bring up a second climber, or buried vertically to form a stomp belay. The adze is used to cut footsteps (sometimes known as pigeon holes), as well as scoop seats in the hillside and trenches to bury an ice axe belay.[1] The long-handled alpenstock was a predecessor to the modern ice axe
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Geoid
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides. This surface is extended through the continents (such as with very narrow hypothetical canals). All points on a geoid surface have the same effective potential (the sum of gravitational potential energy and centrifugal potential energy). The geoid can be defined at any value of gravitational potential such as within the Earth's crust or far out in space, not just at sea level
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Caucasus
 Abkhazia Artsakh South OssetiaAutonomous republics and federal regions Russia Adygea  Chechnya  Dagestan  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai North Ossetia-Alania  Stavropol Krai Georgia Adjara Abkhazia (since 2008, in exile) Azerbaijan NakhchivanDemonym CaucasianTime Zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+4:00, UTC+04:30The Caucasus
Caucasus
/ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region located at the border of
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Nevada
Nevada
Nevada
(/nɪˈvædə/; see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States
United States
of America. It borders Oregon
Oregon
to the northwest, Idaho
Idaho
to the northeast, California
California
to the west, Arizona
Arizona
to the southeast and Utah
Utah
to the east. Nevada
Nevada
is the 7th most extensive, the 34th most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the 50 United States
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National Geographic
National Geographic, formerly the National Geographic
National Geographic
Magazine, is the official magazine of the National Geographic
National Geographic
Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded. It primarily contains articles about science, geography, history, and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest
Controlling interest
in the magazine has been held by 21st Century Fox since 2015. The magazine is published monthly, and additional map supplements are also included with subscriptions. It is available in a traditional printed edition and through an interactive online edition
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Earth Science
Earth
Earth
science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth
Earth
science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth
Earth
science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. “ Earth
Earth
science” is a broad term that encompasses four main branches of study, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth
Earth
sciences. It is also the study of the Earth
Earth
and its neighbors in space
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Foot (unit)
The foot (pl. feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: ′, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement. Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly. In both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard. Historically the "foot" was a part of many local systems of units, including the Greek, Roman, Chinese, French, and English systems. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city, and sometimes from trade to trade
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Metre
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling[1]) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The SI unit symbol is m.[2] The metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 second.[1] The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. In 1983, the current definition was adopted. The imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres (2.54 centimetres or 25.4 millimetres). One metre is about ​3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard, i.e
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Atmospheric Sciences
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal)
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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