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Sudanese Arabic
SUDANESE ARABIC is the variety of Arabic
Arabic
spoken throughout Sudan
Sudan
. Some of the tribes in Sudan
Sudan
still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Unique phonological characteristics * 3 Influence of Nubian languages * 4 Regional variation * 5 Greetings in Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
* 6 Assenting - saying yes * 7 See also * 8 References * 8.1 English * 8.2 French * 8.3 German * 8.4 Arabic
Arabic
* 9 External links HISTORYIn 1889 the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain claimed that the Arabic
Arabic
spoken in Sudan
Sudan
was "a pure but archaic Arabic"
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Public Domain
The legal term PUBLIC DOMAIN refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or by their copyright term expiring. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ , and the CIA
CIA
's World Factbook
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Ethnologue
ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD is a commercial publication about the living languages of the world, first issued in 1951. As of 2017, it contains web-based information about 7,099 languages in its 20th edition, including the number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliations, autonym , availability of the Bible
Bible
in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, and an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS)
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Pidgin
A PIDGIN /ˈpɪdʒɪn/ , or PIDGIN LANGUAGE, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade , or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language. A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from a multitude of languages as well as onomatopoeia
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Great Britain
GREAT BRITAIN, also known as BRITAIN, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
off the northwest coast of continental Europe
Europe
. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain
Great Britain
is the largest of the British Isles
British Isles
, the largest European island , and the ninth-largest island in the world . In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java
Java
in Indonesia and Honshu
Honshu
in Japan . The island of Ireland
Ireland
is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands , comprise the British Isles
British Isles
archipelago
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Journal Of The Royal Anthropological Institute
The JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland . The journal covers anthropological topics such as archaeology , civilisation , ritual , mythology , religion , society , and ethnography and includes a book review section. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Abstracting and indexing * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe journal was established in 1901 as MAN and obtained its current title in 1995, with volume numbering restarting at 1. For first sixty-three volumes from its inception in 1901 up to 1963 it was issued on a monthly basis, moving to bimonthly issues for the years 1964–1965. From March 1966 until its last issue in December 1994, it was published quarterly as a "new series", with a new sequence of volume numbers (1–29)
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Shaddah
SHADDAH (Arabic : شَدّة‎‎ shaddah " emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, TASHDID تشديد tashdīd "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
, marking a long consonant (geminate ). It is functionally equivalent to writing a consonant twice in the orthographies of languages like Latin , Italian , Swedish , and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, and is thus rendered in Latin
Latin
script in most schemes of Arabic transliteration , e.g. رُمّان = rummān 'pomegranates '. In shape, it is a small letter س s(h)in , standing for shaddah. It was devised for poetry by al-Khalil ibn Ahmad in the eighth century, replacing an earlier dot
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Tanwin
In some Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, such as Arabic , NUNATION (Arabic : تنوين‎‎ tanwīn) is the addition of a final nūn sound to a noun or adjective to indicate that it is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness . SYMBOL ـٌ ‎ ـٍ ‎ ـً ‎ TRANSLITERATION -un -in -an There are three of these vowel diacritics, and the signs indicate, from left to right, the endings -un (nominative case ), -in (genitive ), and -an (accusative ). The sign ـً‎ is most commonly written in combination with ا‎ alif (ـًا‎), ةً‎ (tāʾ marbūṭa تاء مربوطة) or stand-alone ءً‎ (hamza همزة). An alif should always be written unless the word ends in tāʾ marbūṭa or hamza or is a diptote , even though the -un, -an or -in is not written
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Ancient South Arabian Script
The ancient YEMENI alphabet ( Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
ms3nd; modern Arabic : المُسنَد‎‎ musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC
9th century BC
. It was used for writing the Old South Arabian languages of the Sabaic , Qatabanic , Hadramautic , Minaean , Himyaritic , and Ge\'ez in Dʿmt
Dʿmt
. The earliest inscriptions in the alphabet date to the 9th century BC
9th century BC
in the Northern Red Sea Region
Northern Red Sea Region
, Eritrea
Eritrea
. There are no vowels, instead using the mater lectionis to mark them. Its mature form was reached around 500 BC , and its use continued until the 6th century , including Ancient North Arabian inscriptions in variants of the alphabet, when it was displaced by the Arabic alphabet
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Nabataean Alphabet
U+10880–U+108AF Final Accepted Script Proposal History of the alphabet ------------------------- Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c
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Saudi Arabia
SAUDI ARABIA (/ˌsɔːdi əˈreɪbiə/ ( listen ), /ˌsaʊ-/ ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA), is a sovereign Arab
Arab
state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula . With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia
Asia
and second-largest state in the Arab
Arab
world after Algeria
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South Sudan
Coordinates : 8°N 30°E / 8°N 30°E / 8; 30 Republic
Republic
of South Sudan Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Justice, Liberty, Prosperity" ANTHEM: " South Sudan Oyee! " Capital and largest city Juba 04°51′N 31°36′E / 4.850°N 31.600°E / 4.850; 31.600 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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