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Subsidiary
A SUBSIDIARY, SUBSIDIARY COMPANY or DAUGHTER COMPANY is a company that is owned or controlled by another company, which is called the _parent company _, _parent_, or _holding company _. The subsidiary can be a company, corporation , or limited liability company . In some cases it is a government or state-owned enterprise . In some cases, particularly in the music and book publishing industries, subsidiaries are referred to as imprints . In the United States railroad industry, an OPERATING SUBSIDIARY is a company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity, locomotives and rolling stock . In contrast, a NON-OPERATING SUBSIDIARY would exist on paper only (i.e., stocks, bonds, articles of incorporation) and would use the identity of the parent company . Subsidiaries are a common feature of business life, and most multinational corporations organize their operations in this way. Examples include holding companies such as Berkshire Hathaway
Berkshire Hathaway
, Leucadia National Corporation
Corporation
, Time Warner
Time Warner
, or Citigroup
Citigroup
; as well as more focused companies such as IBM
IBM
or Xerox . These, and others, organize their businesses into national and functional subsidiaries, often with multiple levels of subsidiaries
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Company (law)
A COMPANY, abbreviated CO., is a legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural , legal , or a mixture of both, for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Company
Company
members share a common purpose and unite in order to focus their various talents and organize their collectively available skills or resources to achieve specific, declared goals . Companies take various forms such as: * Voluntary associations which may include nonprofit organization * A group of soldiers * Business
Business
entities with an aim of gaining a profit * Financial entities and banks A company or association of persons can be created at law as legal person so that the company in itself can accept limited liability for civil responsibility and taxation incurred as members perform (or fail) to discharge their duty within the publicly declared "birth certificate" or published policy . Because companies are legal persons, they also may associate and register themselves as companies – often known as a corporate group . When the company closes it may need a "death certificate" to avoid further legal obligations
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Parent Company
A PARENT COMPANY is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operation by doing and influencing or electing its board of directors . The second company is deemed a subsidiary of the parent company. CONTENTS* 1 By country * 1.1 Australia (AU) * 1.2 Singapore * 1.3 United Kingdom (UK) * 2 See also * 3 References BY COUNTRYAUSTRALIA (AU)The parent company-subsidiary company relationship is defined by Part 1.2, Division 6, Section 46 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) , which states: A body corporate (in this section called the first body ) is a subsidiary of another body corporate if, and only if: (a) the other body: (i) controls the composition of the first body's board; or (ii) is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than one-half of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the first body; or (iii) holds more than one-half of the issued share capital of the first body (excluding any part of that issued share capital that carries no right to participate beyond a specified amount in a distribution of either profits or capital); or (b) the first body is a subsidiary of a subsidiary of the other body. SINGAPOREThe parent company-subsidiary company relationship is defined by Part 1, Section 5, Subsection 1 of the Companies Act , which states: 5
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Holding Company
A HOLDING COMPANY is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock . The term usually refers to a company that does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group . Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies. In the United States , 80% of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed. That is, if Company A owns 80% or more of the stock of Company B, Company A will not pay taxes on dividends paid by Company B to its stockholders, as the payment of dividends from B to A is essentially Company A transferring cash from one company to the other. Any other shareholders of Company B will pay the usual taxes on dividends, as they are legitimate and ordinary dividends to these shareholders . Sometimes a company intended to be a pure holding company identifies itself as such by adding "Holding" or "Holdings" to its name. CONTENTS* 1 United States * 1.1 Banking * 1.2 Utilities * 1.3 Broadcasting * 1.4 Personal holding company * 2 Parent company * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links UNITED STATESBANKING Further information: bank holding company After the financial crisis of 2007–08 , many U.S. investment banks converted to holding companies
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Corporation
A CORPORATION is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person ) and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an _ad hoc_ act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration . Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they make profit or not. Where local law distinguishes corporations by ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, and owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders". Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations; those who are considered the owners of the corporation are those who have obtained membership in the corporation, and are referred to as a "member" of the corporation. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well
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Limited Liability Company
A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY (LLC) is the United States-specific form of a private limited company . It is a business structure that combines the pass-through taxation of a partnership or sole proprietorship with the limited liability of a corporation . An LLC is not a corporation; it is a legal form of a company that provides limited liability to its owners in many jurisdictions. LLCs do not need to be organized for profit. In certain U.S. states (for example, Texas), businesses that provide professional services requiring a state professional license, such as legal or medical services, may not be allowed to form an LLC but may be required to form a similar entity called a PROFESSIONAL LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY (PLLC)
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State-owned Enterprise
A STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISE (SOE) is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of the state, its owner. The legal status of SOEs varies from being a part of the government to being stock companies with the state as a regular stockholder . The defining characteristics of SOEs are that they have a distinct legal form and are established to operate in commercial affairs and commercial activities. While they may also have public policy objectives (e.g., a state railway company may aim to make transportation more accessible), SOEs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely nonfinancial objectives. Government-owned corporations are common with natural monopolies and infrastructure, such as railways and telecommunications, strategic goods and services (mail, weapons), natural resources and energy, politically sensitive business, broadcasting, banking, demerit goods (e.g. alcoholic beverages ), and merit goods (healthcare)
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Imprint (trade Name)
An IMPRINT of a publisher is a trade name under which it publishes a work. A single publishing company may have multiple imprints, often using the different names as brands to market works to various demographic consumer segments . DESCRIPTIONAn imprint of a publisher is a trade name —a name that a business uses for trading commercial products or services—under which a work is published . Imprints typically have a defining character or mission . In some cases, the diversity results from the takeover of smaller publishers (or parts of their business) by a larger company. In the case of Barnes "> * ^ Friedlander, Joel (2015-02-09). "A Quick Lesson About Publishers, Imprints, CreateSpace, and Bowker". The Book Designer. Retrieved 2016-07-29. * ^ "Industry Overview: Journalism and Publishing". Wet Feet. Retrieved 2016-07-29. * ^ "What is an imprint?". The Book Publicity Blog. This publishing -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Imprint_(trade_name) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Railroad
RAIL TRANSPORT is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks . It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport , where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock ) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast , on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock
Rolling stock
in a rail transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons) can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railway company , providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power, usually by diesel engines . Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system . Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport
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Rolling Stock
The term ROLLING STOCK in rail transport industry originally referred to any vehicles that move on a railway . It has since expanded to include the wheeled vehicles used by businesses on roadways. It usually includes both powered and unpowered vehicles, for example locomotives , railroad cars , coaches , and wagons . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Code names * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWNote that stock in the term is business related and used in a sense of inventory . Rolling stock
Rolling stock
is considered to be a liquid asset , or close to it, since the value of the vehicle can be readily estimated and then shipped to the buyer without much cost or delay. The term contrasts with fixed stock (infrastructure ), which is a collective term for the track , signals , stations , other buildings, electric wires, etc., necessary to operate a railway. * Steam and diesel locomotives * DMU rolling stock * American-style hopper car * Articulated well cars with intermodal containers CODE NAMESIn Great Britain
Great Britain
, types of rolling stock were given code names, often of animals
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Multinational Corporation
A MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION or WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in two or more countries other than their home country. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Overview * 3 Theoretical background * 4 Transnational corporations * 5 Multinational enterprise * 6 Multinational corporation and colonialism * 7 Criticism of multinationals * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links NAMESA multinational corporation can also be referred to as an MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE (MNE), a INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, a TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION, or a STATELESS CORPORATION. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as those labels of MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION and a WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE. OVERVIEW Toyota is one of the world's largest multinational corporations with their headquarters in Toyota City , Japan . A multinational corporation (MNC) is usually a large corporation incorporated in one country which produces or sells goods or services in various countries. The two main characteristics of MNCs are their large size and the fact that their worldwide activities are centrally controlled by the parent companies
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Berkshire Hathaway
BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY INC. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha , Nebraska
Nebraska
, United States
United States
. The company wholly owns GEICO , BNSF Railway , Lubrizol , Fruit of the Loom , Helzberg Diamonds , FlightSafety International
International
, Pampered Chef , and NetJets , and also owns 26.7% of the Kraft Heinz Company , and significant minority holdings in American Express (17.0%), The Coca-Cola Company (9.4%), Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
(9.9%), IBM
IBM
(6.9%) and Apple (2.5%). Since 2016, the company has acquired large holdings in the major US airline carriers and is currently the largest shareholder in United Airlines and Delta Air Lines and a top 3 shareholder in Southwest Airlines and American Airlines
American Airlines
. Berkshire Hathaway
Berkshire Hathaway
has averaged an annual growth in book value of 19.0% to its shareholders since 1965 (compared to 9.7% from the S&P 500 with dividends included for the same period), while employing large amounts of capital, and minimal debt
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Leucadia National Corporation
LEUCADIA NATIONAL CORPORATION is an American holding company that, through its subsidiaries, engages in mining "> was a bid in 2004 to acquire 50 percent of telecommunications company MCI 's common stock. However, after MCI received higher bids from other companies, Leucadia withdrew from the bidding process. SUBSIDIARIES AND INVESTMENTS* Financial Services * Jefferies Group * Berkadia Commercial Mortgage (50/50 joint venture with Berkshire Hathaway ) * HomeFed (65% ownership) * FXCM (January 2015 loan, 49.9%) * Merchant Banking
Banking
* National Beef Packing (78.9% ownership) * HRG Group (23%) * Vitesse Energy (96%) * Juneau Energy (98%) * Garcadia Holdings (Joint venture with Ken Garff Automotive Group) * Linkem (55%) * Conwed Plastics (100%) * Idaho Timber (100%)MERGER WITH THE JEFFERIES GROUPOn November 12, 2012, Jefferies Group announced its merger with Leucadia, its largest shareholder. Jefferies was valued at $3.8 billion at the time of the acquisition. Jefferies remains independent and is the largest operating company within Leucadia. On March 1, 2013, Leucadia bought the Jefferies Group for $3.6 billion. The company’s founders, Ian M. Cumming and Joseph S. Steinberg, stepped down from their management roles after the merger, with Mr. Steinberg staying on as chairman
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Time Warner
TIME WARNER, INC. is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered in New York City. It is currently the world's third largest entertainment company in terms of revenue, after Comcast and The Walt Disney Company . It was also once the world's largest media conglomerate. Time Warner was first founded in 1990, with the merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications . The current company consists largely of the assets of the former Warner Communications (as well as HBO , a Time Inc. subsidiary prior to the merger), and the assets of Turner Broadcasting (which was acquired by the company in 1996). Time Warner currently has major operations in film and television , with a limited amount in publishing operations. Among its major assets are HBO , Turner Broadcasting System, The CW , Warner Bros. , CNN , DC Comics , and as of August 2016, Hulu , owning 10%. In the past, other major divisions of Time Warner included Time Inc. , AOL , Time Warner Cable , Warner Books and Warner Music Group . All of these operations were either sold to other investors or spun off as independent companies from 2004 to 2014
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Citigroup
CITIGROUP INC. or CITI (stylized as CITI and pronounced like "city") is an American multinational investment banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City
New York City
. The company was formed by the merger of banking giant Citicorp
Citicorp
and financial conglomerate Travelers Group in 1998; however, Travelers was spun off from the company in 2002. Citigroup
Citigroup
now owns Citicorp, holding company for Citibank , and several international subsidiaries. Citigroup
Citigroup
ranks 4th on the list of largest banks in the United States by assets and is one of the Big Four banks in the United States
United States
, alongside JPMorgan Chase , Bank of America
Bank of America
, and Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
. In 2016, Citigroup
Citigroup
ranked 29th in size on the Fortune 500 list. In addition to U.S. money managers, its largest shareholders include Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal of the Saudi royal family , and investors from Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and Singapore
Singapore
. Citigroup
Citigroup
has over 200 million customer accounts and does business in more than 160 countries
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Ibm
IBM
IBM
(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York , United States
United States
, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware , middleware and software , and offers hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology . IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most patents generated by a business (as of 2017) for 24 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM
IBM
include the automated teller machine (ATM), the PC , the floppy disk , the hard disk drive , the magnetic stripe card , the relational database , the SQL
SQL
programming language , the UPC barcode , and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe , exemplified by the System/360 , was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM
IBM
has continually shifted its business mix by commoditizing markets focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets
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