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Stroke (engine)
In the context of an Internal combustion engine, the term stroke has the following related meanings:A phase of the engine's cycle (eg compression stroke, exhaust stroke), during which the piston travels from top to bottom or vice-versa. The type of power cycle used by a piston engine (eg two-stroke engine, four-stroke engine). "Stroke length", the distance travelled by the piston in each cycle. The stroke length- along with bore diameter- determines the engine's displacement.Contents1 Phases in the power cycle1.1 Induction/ Intake
Intake
stroke 1.2 Compression stroke 1.3 Combustion/Power/Expansion stroke 1.4 Exhaust stroke2 Types of power cycles2.1 Two-stroke engine 2.2 Four-strokes engine3 Stroke lengthPhases in the power cycle[edit]The phases/strokes of a four-stroke engine. 1: intake 2: compression 3: power 4: exhaustCommonly-used engine phases/strokes (ie those used in a four-stroke engine) are described below
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Axial Engine
Axial engines (sometimes known as barrel or Z-crank engines) are a type of reciprocating engine with pistons arranged around an output shaft with their axes parallel to the shaft. Barrel refers to the cylindrical shape of the cylinder group (result of the pistons being spaced evenly around the central crankshaft and aligned parallel to the crankshaft axis) whilst the Z-crank alludes to the shape of the crankshaft. The key advantage of the axial design is that the cylinders are arranged in parallel around the output/crank shaft in contrast to radial and inline engines, both types having cylinders at right angles to the shaft. As a result, it is a very compact, cylindrical engine, allowing variation in compression ratio of the engine while running. In a swashplate engine the piston rods stay parallel with the shaft, and piston side-forces that cause excessive wear can be eliminated almost completely
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Otto Cycle
An Otto cycle
Otto cycle
is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine.[1][page needed] It is the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines. The Otto cycle
Otto cycle
is a description of what happens to a mass of gas as it is subjected to changes of pressure, temperature, volume, addition of heat, and removal of heat. The mass of gas that is subjected to those changes is called the system. The system, in this case, is defined to be the fluid (gas) within the cylinder. By describing the changes that take place within the system, it will also describe in inverse, the system's effect on the environment
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Thermodynamic Cycle
A thermodynamic cycle consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state.[1] In the process of passing through a cycle, the working fluid (system) may convert heat from a warm source into useful work, and dispose of the remaining heat to a cold sink, thereby acting as a heat engine. Conversely, the cycle may be reversed and use work to move heat from a cold source and transfer it to a warm sink thereby acting as a heat pump. At every point in the cycle, the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, so the cycle is reversible (its entropy change is zero, as entropy is a state function). During a closed cycle, the system returns to its original thermodynamic state of temperature and pressure. Process quantities (or path quantities), such as heat and work are process dependent
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Fuel
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy
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Gas Compressor
A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas
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Diesel Cycle
The Diesel cycle
Diesel cycle
is a combustion process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine. In it, fuel is ignited by heat generated during the compression of air in the combustion chamber, into which fuel is then injected. This is in contrast to igniting the fuel-air mixture with a spark plug as in the Otto cycle
Otto cycle
(four-stroke/petrol) engine. Diesel engines are used in aircraft, automobiles, power generation, diesel-electric locomotives, and both surface ships and submarines. The Diesel cycle
Diesel cycle
is assumed to have constant pressure during the initial part of the combustion phase ( V 2 displaystyle V_ 2 to V 3 displaystyle V_ 3 in the diagram, below). This is an idealized mathematical model: real physical diesels do have an increase in pressure during this period, but it is less pronounced than in the Otto cycle
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Force (physics)
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.[1] A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. Force
Force
can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton's second law
Newton's second law
states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time
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Straight-five Engine
The straight-five engine or inline-five engine is an internal combustion engine with five cylinders aligned in one row or plane, sharing a single engine block and crankcase
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V-twin Engine
A V-twin engine, also called a V2 engine, is a two-cylinder internal combustion engine where the cylinders are arranged in a V configuration. Although widely associated with motorcycles, V-twin engines are also produced for the power equipment industry and are often found in riding lawnmowers, small tractors and electric generators.Contents1 History 2 Configurations2.1 Crankshaft
Crankshaft
configuration 2.2 V angles3 Orientations3.1 Transverse crankshaft mounting 3.2 Longitudinal crankshaft mounting4 Automobile
Automobile
use 5 Commercial use 6 See also 7 References 8 See also 9 External linksHistory[edit]Gottlieb Daimler's 1889 V-twin engine Gottlieb Daimler
Gottlieb Daimler
built a V-twin engine
V-twin engine
in 1889
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Rotary Engine
The rotary engine was an early type of internal combustion engine, usually designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit. Its main application was in aviation, although it also saw use before its primary aviation role, in a few early motorcycles and automobiles. This type of engine was widely used as an alternative to conventional inline engines (straight or V) during World War I
World War I
and the years immediately preceding that conflict
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Split Cycle Engine
The split-cycle engine is a type of internal combustion engine.Contents1 Design 2 History 3 References 4 See alsoDesign[edit] In a conventional Otto cycle
Otto cycle
engine, each cylinder performs four strokes per cycle: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. This means that two revolutions of the crankshaft are required for each power stroke. The split-cycle engine divides these four strokes between two paired cylinders: one for intake and compression, and another for power and exhaust. Compressed air is transferred from the compression cylinder to the power cylinder through a crossover passage. Fuel is then injected and fired to produce the power stroke. History[edit] The Backus Water Motor Company of Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
was producing an early example of a split cycle engine as far back as 1891
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Stelzer Engine
The Stelzer engine
Stelzer engine
is a two-stroke opposing-piston free-piston engine design proposed by Frank Stelzer. It uses conjoined pistons in a push-pull arrangement which allows for fewer moving parts and simplified manufacturing. An engine of the same design appeared on the cover of the February 1969 issue of Mechanix Illustrated
Mechanix Illustrated
magazine.Contents1 Operation 2 Applications 3 Prototypes 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOperation[edit] There are two combustion chambers and a central precompression chamber
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Tschudi Engine
A swing-piston engine is a type of internal combustion engine in which the pistons move in a circular motion inside a ring-shaped "cylinder", moving closer and further from each other to provide compression and expansion. Generally two sets of pistons are used, geared to move in a fixed relationship as they rotate around the cylinder. In some versions the pistons oscillate around a fixed center, as opposed to rotating around the entire engine. The design has also been referred to as a oscillating piston engine, vibratory engine when the pistons oscillate instead of rotate, or toroidal engine based on the shape of the "cylinder". Two successful swing-piston models have been made: The American-made MYT engine and a Russian ORE which was used in the Yo-Mobile
Yo-Mobile
hybrid car. These engines utilize fuel much more efficiently than other internal combustion engines and generate a high torque output with twelve compressions per oscillation
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Single-cylinder Engine
A single-cylinder engine is a basic piston engine configuration of an internal combustion engine. It is often seen on motorcycles, auto rickshaws, motor scooters, mopeds, dirt bikes, go-karts, radio-controlled models, and has many uses in portable tools and garden machinery. Some single-cylinder automobiles and tractors have been produced, but are rare today due to developments in engine technology.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Pros and cons 3 Uses 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Single-cylinder engines are simple and compact, and will often deliver the maximum power possible within a given envelope. Cooling is simpler than with multiple cylinders, potentially saving further weight, especially if air cooling is used. Single-cylinder engines require more flywheel than multi-cylinder engines, and the rotating mass is relatively large, restricting acceleration and sharp changes of speed
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Split-single
The split-single (Doppelkolbenmotor to its German and Austrian manufacturers), is a variant on the two-stroke engine with two cylinders sharing a single combustion chamber.Contents1 Principle of operation 2 History2.1 Lucas (invented 1905) 2.2 Garelli (invented 1912) 2.3 Trojan (invented 1913) 2.4 Puch
Puch
1923–1970 2.5 DKW
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