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Strigopoidea
The New Zealand
New Zealand
parrot superfamily (Strigopoidea)[1] consists of three genera of parrots, Nestor, Strigops, and the fossil Nelepsittacus.[2][3] The genus Nestor consists of the kea, kaka, Norfolk Island kaka
Norfolk Island kaka
and Chatham Island kaka,[4][5] while the genus Strigops contains the iconic kākāpō.[4] All extant species are endemic to New Zealand
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Glacier
A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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Ecological Niche
In ecology, a niche (CanE, UK: /ˈniːʃ/ or US: /ˈnɪtʃ/)[1] is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.[2][3] The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (for example, by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (for example, limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey). "The type and number of variables comprising the dimensions of an environmental niche vary from one species to another [and] the relative importance of particular environmental variables for a species may vary according to the geographic and biotic contexts".[4] A Grinnellian niche is determined by the habitat in which a species lives and its accompanying behavioral adaptations
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Gondwana
Gondwana
Gondwana
( /ɡɒndˈwɑːnə/),[1] or Gondwanaland,[2] was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(about 320 million years ago). It was formed by the accretion of several cratons. Eventually, Gondwana became the largest piece of continental crust of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, covering an area of about 100,000,000 km2 (39,000,000 sq mi).[3] During the Carboniferous, it merged with Euramerica
Euramerica
to form a larger supercontinent called Pangaea. Gondwana
Gondwana
(and Pangaea) gradually broke up during the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era
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Wasp
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita
Apocrita
have a common evolutionary ancestor and form a clade; wasps as a group do not form a clade, but are paraphyletic with respect to bees and ants. The most commonly known wasps, such as yellowjackets and hornets, are in the family Vespidae
Vespidae
and are eusocial, living together in a nest with an egg-laying queen and non-reproducing workers. Eusociality
Eusociality
is favoured by the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination in Hymenoptera, as it makes sisters exceptionally closely related to each other. However, the majority of wasp species are solitary, with each adult female living and breeding independently. Wasps play many ecological roles. Some are predators or pollinators, whether to feed themselves or to provision their nests
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Habitat Loss
Habitat
Habitat
destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity.[1] Habitat
Habitat
destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industrial production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling and urban sprawl
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Common Brushtail Possum
T. v. vulpecula T. v. arnhemensis T. v. eburacensis T. v. johnsoni T. v. fuliginosus Common brushtail possum
Common brushtail possum
rangeThe common brushtail possum ( Trichosurus
Trichosurus
vulpecula, from the Greek for "furry tailed" and the Latin
Latin
for "little fox", previously in the genus Phalangista[3]) is a nocturnal, semi-arboreal marsupial of the family Phalangeridae, it is native to Australia, and the second largest of the possums. Like most possums, the common brushtail possum is nocturnal. It is mainly a folivore, but has been known to eat small mammals such as rats. In most Australian habitats, leaves of eucalyptus are a significant part of the diet but rarely the sole item eaten. The tail is prehensile and naked on its lower underside
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Pig
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), along with other species. Related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, and the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the Eurasian and African continents
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Invasive Species In New Zealand
A number of introduced species, some of which have become invasive species, have been added to New Zealand's native flora and fauna. Both deliberate and accidental introductions have been made from the time of the first human settlement, with several waves of Polynesian[1] people at some time before the year 1300,[2] followed by Europeans after 1769.[3] Almost without exception,[4] the introduced species have been detrimental to the native flora and fauna but some, such as farmed sheep and cows and the clover upon which they feed, now form a large part of the economy of New Zealand
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Speciation
Speciation
Speciation
is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species. The biologist Orator F. Cook
Orator F. Cook
coined the term in 1906 for cladogenesis, the splitting of lineages, as opposed to anagenesis, phyletic evolution within lineages.[1][2][3] Charles Darwin was the first to describe the role of natural selection in speciation in his 1859 book The Origin of Species.[4] He also identified sexual selection as a likely mechanism, but found it problematic. There are four geographic modes of speciation in nature, based on the extent to which speciating populations are isolated from one another: allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric. Speciation
Speciation
may also be induced artificially, through animal husbandry, agriculture, or laboratory experiments
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Early Miocene
The Early Miocene
Miocene
(also known as Lower Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch made up of two stages: the Aquitanian and Burdigalian stages. The sub-epoch lasted from 23.03 ± 0.05 Ma to 15.97 ± 0.05 Ma (million years ago). It was preceded by the Oligocene
Oligocene
epoch. As the climate started to get cooler, the landscape started to change. New mammals evolved to replace the extinct animals of the Oligocene epoch.The first members of the hyena and weasel family started to evolve to replace the extinct Hyaenodon, entelodonts and bear-dogs. The chalicotheres survived the Oligocene
Oligocene
epoch. A new genus of entelodont called Daeodon
Daeodon
evolved in order to adapt to the new habitats and hunt the new prey animals of the Early Miocene
Miocene
epoch; it quickly became the top predator of North America
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Māori Language
Māori (/ˈmaʊri/; Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi]  listen), also known as Te Reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Since 1987, it has been one of New Zealand's official languages. It is closely related to Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian
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Phillip Island (Norfolk Island)
Phillip Island is an uninhabited island located 6 km (3.7 mi) south of Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
in the Southwest Pacific, and part of the Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
group. It was named in 1788 by Lieutenant Philip Gidley King
Philip Gidley King
for Arthur Phillip, the first Governor of New South Wales. It is part of the Australian territory of Norfolk Island. It is included in Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
National Park, as is neighbouring Nepean Island, and about 10 per cent of Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
proper. Phillip Island has an area of 190 hectares (470 acres), measuring 2.1 km (1.3 mi) from west to east and 1.95 km (1.21 mi) from north to south, with the highest point, Jacky Jacky, 280 m (920 ft) above sea level. It is roughly shaped like a hairdryer with the nozzle pointing east
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Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
(/ˈnɔːrfək/ ( listen); Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen[8]) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres (877 mi) directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Lord Howe Island. Together with two neighbouring islands, it forms one of the Commonwealth of Australia's external territories. At the 2016 Australian census, it has 1,748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2 (14 sq mi).[7] Its capital is Kingston. Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
was first settled by East Polynesians
Polynesians
but was long unpopulated when it was eventually also settled by Great Britain as part of its settlement of Australia
Australia
from 1788
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Chatham Island
Chatham
Chatham
may refer to:Contents1 Places and jurisdictions 2 People 3 Ships 4 Other 5 See also 6 Disambiguation terms 7 NotesPlaces and jurisdictions[edit]In England (UK)Chatham, Kent, a town Chatham
Chath

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Endemism In Birds
Endemism
Endemism
is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people".[1] The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists,[a] and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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