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Stress (biology)
Physiological or biological STRESS is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a challenge. Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body. The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight or flight response through the sympathetic nervous system , which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaption to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis. The second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol , which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic, psychological and immunological functions
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ACTH
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH, also ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, CORTICOTROPIN) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland . It is also used as a medication and diagnostic agent . ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus ). Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland . ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms. Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus , cf. hypopituitarism ) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone CRH )
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Nervous System
The NERVOUS SYSTEM is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord . The PNS consists mainly of nerves , which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons , that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called _motor_ or _efferent_ nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called _sensory_ or _afferent_. Spinal nerves serve both functions and are called _mixed_ nerves. The PNS is divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic , autonomic , and enteric nervous systems
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Homeostasis
HOMEOSTASIS is the property of a system within the body of an organism in which a variable, such as the concentration of a substance in solution , is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant. Examples of homeostasis include the regulation of the body temperature of an animal, the pH of its extracellular fluids , or the concentrations of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) ions as well as that of glucose in the blood plasma , despite changes in the animal's environment, or what it has eaten, or what it is doing (for example, resting or exercising). Each of these variables is controlled by a separate "homeostat" (or regulator), which, together, maintain life. Homeostats are energy -consuming physiological mechanisms. The concept was described by French physiologist Claude Bernard in 1865 and the word was coined by Walter Bradford Cannon in 1926
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Vasopressin
NM_000490 NM_009732 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_000481 NP_033862 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 20: 3.08 – 3.08 Mb Chr 2: 130.58 – 130.58 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseVASOPRESSIN, also known as ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH), is a neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals which is also used as a medication. In most species it contains arginine and is thus also called ARGININE VASOPRESSIN (AVP) or ARGIPRESSIN. Its two primary functions are to retain water in the body and to constrict blood vessels. Vasopressin
Vasopressin
regulates the body's retention of water by acting to increase water reabsorption in the kidney's collecting ducts, the tubules which receive the very dilute urine produced by the functional unit of the kidney, the nephrons
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Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
3EHU, 3EHT, 1GOE IDENTIFIERS ALIASES CRH, CRF, CRH1, corticotropin releasing hormone EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 122560 MGI: 88496 HomoloGene: 599 GeneCards: CRH GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome
Chromosome
8 (human) BAND 8q13.1 START 66,176,382 bp END 66,178,725 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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Glucocorticoid
GLUCOCORTICOIDS (GCS) are a class of corticosteroids , which are a class of steroid hormones . Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid (GLUCOse + CORTex + sterOID) is composed from its role in regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex , and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right). A less common synonym is GLUCOCORTICOSTEROID. GCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as reduction of inflammation . They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an overactive immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases , and sepsis . GCs have many diverse (pleiotropic ) effects, including potentially harmful side effects, and as a result are rarely sold over the counter
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Circadian Rhythm
A CIRCADIAN RHYTHM /sɜːrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous , entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock , and they have been widely observed in plants , animals , fungi , and cyanobacteria . The term circadian comes from the Latin
Latin
circa , meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diēm, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal , weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology . Processes with 24-hour oscillations are more generally called DIURNAL RHYTHMS; strictly speaking, they should not be called circadian rhythms unless their endogenous nature is confirmed. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers (from German, "time giver"), which include light, temperature and redox cycles
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Walter Cannon
WALTER BRADFORD CANNON (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist , professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology
Physiology
at Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School
. He coined the term fight or flight response , and he expanded on Claude Bernard 's concept of homeostasis . He popularized his theories in his book The Wisdom of the Body, first published in 1932. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Cannon as the 81st most cited scholar of the 20th century in technical psychology journals, introductory psychology textbooks, and survey responses
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Strain (materials Science)
DEFORMATION in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration. A configuration is a set containing the positions of all particles of the body. A deformation may be caused by external loads , body forces (such as gravity or electromagnetic forces ), or changes in temperature, moisture content, or chemical reactions, etc. Strain is a description of deformation in terms of relative displacement of particles in the body that excludes rigid-body motions. Different equivalent choices may be made for the expression of a strain field depending on whether it is defined with respect to the initial or the final configuration of the body and on whether the metric tensor or its dual is considered. In a continuous body, a deformation field results from a stress field induced by applied forces or is due to changes in the temperature field inside the body
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Risk Factors
In epidemiology , a RISK FACTOR is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection . Sometimes, DETERMINANT is also used, being a variable associated with either increased or decreased risk. CONTENTS * 1 Correlation vs causation * 2 Terms of description * 3 Example * 4 General determinants * 5 Risk marker * 6 History * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading CORRELATION VS CAUSATION Risk factors or determinants are correlational and not necessarily causal , because correlation does not prove causation . For example, being young cannot be said to cause measles , but young people have a higher rate of measles because they are less likely to have developed immunity during a previous epidemic. Statistical methods are frequently used to assess the strength of an association and to provide causal evidence (for example in the study of the link between smoking and lung cancer )
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (_franceis_, _françois_, _romanz_; Modern French _ancien français_) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the _langue d\'oïl _, contrasting with the _langue d\'oc _ or Occitan language in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance , specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France region
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Hardiness (psychological)
PSYCHOLOGICAL HARDINESS, alternatively referred to as PERSONALITY HARDINESS or COGNITIVE HARDINESS in the literature, is a personality style first introduced by Suzanne C. Kobasa in 1979. Kobasa described a pattern of personality characteristics that distinguished managers and executives who remained healthy under life stress, as compared to those who developed health problems. In the following years, the concept of hardiness was further elaborated in a book and a series of research reports by Salvatore Maddi, Kobasa and their graduate students at the University of Chicago
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Mortality Rate
MORTALITY RATE, or DEATH RATE, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population , scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1,000) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from "morbidity ", which is either the prevalence or incidence of a disease, and also from the incidence rate (the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time). CONTENTS* 1 Related measures of mortality * 1.1 Survival rates * 2 Statistics * 3 Use in health care * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links RELATED MEASURES OF MORTALITYOther specific measures of mortality include: * Crude death rate – the total number of deaths per year per 1,000 people
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Morbidity
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism not caused by external force (see 'injury ') and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function, usually serving as an evolutionary disadvantage. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by Plasmodium ssp.), the term disease is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged
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Stress (physics)
In continuum mechanics , STRESS is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material. For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting a weight , each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it. When a liquid is in a closed container under pressure , each particle gets pushed against by all the surrounding particles. The container walls and the pressure -inducing surface (such as a piston) push against them in (Newtonian) reaction . These macroscopic forces are actually the net result of a very large number of intermolecular forces and collisions between the particles in those molecules . Stress is frequently represented by a lowercase Greek letter sigma (σ)
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