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Stress (biology)
Physiological
Physiological
or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a condition such as a challenge or physical and psychological barrier. Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body. The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis. The second major physiological stress, the HPA axis
HPA axis
regulates the release of cortisol, which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic, psychological and immunological functions
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Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Strain (materials Science)
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.[1] A configuration is a set containing the positions of all particles of the body. A deformation may be caused by external loads,[2] body forces (such as gravity or electromagnetic forces), or changes in temperature, moisture content, or chemical reactions, etc. Strain is a description of deformation in terms of relative displacement of particles in the body that excludes rigid-body motions. Different equivalent choices may be made for the expression of a strain field depending on whether it is defined with respect to the initial or the final configuration of the body and on whether the metric tensor or its dual is considered. In a continuous body, a deformation field results from a stress field induced by applied forces or is due to changes in the temperature field inside the body
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Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
3EHU, 3EHT, 1GOEIdentifiersAliases CRH, CRF, CRH1, corticotropin releasing hormoneExternal IDs OMIM: 122560 MGI: 88496 HomoloGene: 599 GeneCards: CRH Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
8 (human)[1]Band 8q13.1 Start 66,176,382 bp[1]End 66,178,725 b
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Vasopressin
NM_000490NM_009732RefSeq (protein)NP_000481NP_033862Location (UCSC) Chr 20: 3.08 – 3.08 Mb Chr 2: 130.58 – 130.58 Mb PubMed
PubMed
search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit MouseVasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin,[5] is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP. It then travels down the axon of that cell, which terminates in the posterior pituitary, and is released from vesicles into the circulation in response to extracellular fluid hypertonicity (hyperosmolality). AVP has two primary functions. First, it increases the amount of solute-free water reabsorbed back into the circulation from the filtrate in the kidney tubules of the nephrons. Second, AVP constricts arterioles, which increases peripheral vascular resistance and raises arterial blood pressure.[6][7][8] A third function is possible
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ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.[1] It is also used as a medication and diagnostic agent. ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland. ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms.[2] Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, cf. hypopituitarism) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone CRH)
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Endocrine System
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that secrete those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive. In humans, the major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and adrenal glands. In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The field of study dealing with the endocrine system and its disorders is endocrinology, a branch of internal medicine.[1] Special
Special
features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and commonly the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones
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Nervous System
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events.[1] Nervous tissue
Nervous tissue
first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent
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Walter Cannon
Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School. He coined the term fight or flight response, and he expanded on Claude Bernard's concept of homeostasis. He popularized his theories in his book The Wisdom of the Body, first published in 1932
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Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary artery
Coronary artery
disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type.[15] A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[4] Occasionally it may feel like heartburn
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Glucocorticoid
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones. Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR),[1] that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid (glucose + cortex + steroid) is composed from its role in regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right). A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid. GCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as inflammation. They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an overactive immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and sepsis
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Morbidity
A disease is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism not caused by external force[1][2] (see 'injury') and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function, usually serving as an evolutionary disadvantage. The study of disease is called pathology, which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[3] It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system, such as an immunodeficiency, or by a hypersensitivity, including allergies and autoimmunity. When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by Plasmodium ssp.), the term disease is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen
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Mortality Rate
Mortality rate, or death rate,[1] is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1,000) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total
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Risk Factors
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. When evidence is found the term determinant is used as a variable associated with either increased or decreased risk.Contents1 Correlation
Correlation
vs causation 2 Terms of description 3 Example 4 General determinants 5 Risk
Risk
marker 6 History 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading Correlation
Correlation
vs causation[edit] Risk
Risk
factors or determinants are correlational and not necessarily causal, because correlation does not prove causation. For example, being young cannot be said to cause measles, but young people have a higher rate of measles because they are less likely to have developed immunity during a previous epidemic
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Stress (physics)
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material. For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting a weight, each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it. When a liquid is in a closed container under pressure, each particle gets pushed against by all the surrounding particles. The container walls and the pressure-inducing surface (such as a piston) push against them in (Newtonian) reaction. These macroscopic forces are actually the net result of a very large number of intermolecular forces and collisions between the particles in those molecules
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Hardiness (psychological)
Psychological hardiness, alternatively referred to as personality hardiness or cognitive hardiness in the literature, is a personality style first introduced by Suzanne C. Kobasa in 1979.[1] Kobasa described a pattern of personality characteristics that distinguished managers and executives who remained healthy under life stress, as compared to those who developed health problems
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