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Stress (biology)
Physiological or biological STRESS is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a challenge. Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body. The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight or flight response through the sympathetic nervous system , which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaption to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis. The second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol , which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic, psychological and immunological functions. The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by a wide variety of brain regions, including the limbic system , prefrontal cortex , amygdala , hypothalamus , and stria terminalis . Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, reward , immune function , metabolism and susceptibility to diseases. Definitions of stress differ; however, one system proposed by Elliot and Eisdorfer suggests five types of stress. The five types of stress are labeled "acute time limited stressors", "brief naturalistic stressors", "stressful event sequence", "chronic stressors", and "distant stressors"
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Stress (other)
STRESS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Science and medicine * 2 Art and entertainment * 2.1 Musicians and groups * 2.2 Albums * 2.3 Songs * 3 Other uses * 4 See also SCIENCE AND MEDICINE * Occupational stress * Psychological stress , a feeling of strain and pressure * Stress (biology) , an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition * Stress (journal) , a medical journal * Stress (linguistics) , relative emphasis or prominence given to a syllable in a word, or to a word in a phrase or sentence * Stress (mechanics) , the inter
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Physical Stress
In continuum mechanics , STRESS is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material. For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting a weight , each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it. When a liquid is in a closed container under pressure , each particle gets pushed against by all the surrounding particles. The container walls and the pressure -inducing surface (such as a piston) push against them in (Newtonian) reaction . These macroscopic forces are actually the net result of a very large number of intermolecular forces and collisions between the particles in those molecules . Strain inside a material may arise by various mechanisms, such as stress as applied by external forces to the bulk material (like gravity ) or to its surface (like contact forces , external pressure, or friction ). Any strain (deformation) of a solid material generates an internal elastic stress, analogous to the reaction force of a spring , that tends to restore the material to its original non-deformed state. In liquids and gases , only deformations that change the volume generate persistent elastic stress. However, if the deformation is gradually changing with time, even in fluids there will usually be some viscous stress, opposing that change
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Chronic Stress
CHRONIC STRESS is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control. It involves an endocrine system response in which corticosteroids are released. While the immediate effects of stress hormones are beneficial in a particular short-term situation, long-term exposure to stress creates a high level of these hormones. This may lead to high blood pressure (and subsequently heart disease), damage to muscle tissue, inhibition of growth, suppression of the immune system, and damage to mental health . CONTENTS * 1 Historical development * 2 Physiology * 3 Response * 4 Symptoms * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Hans Selye (1907–1982), known as the "father of stress", is credited with first studying and identifying stress. He studied stress effects by subjecting lab mice to various physical, antigenic, and environmental stressors, including excessive exercise, starvation, and extreme temperatures. He determined that regardless of the type of stress, the mice exhibited similar physical effects, including thymus gland deterioration and the development of ulcers . Selye then developed his theory of general adaptive syndrome (GAS) in 1936, known today as "stress response"
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Stress (psychology)
In psychology , STRESS is a feeling of strain and pressure. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. Positive stress helps improve athletic performance. It also plays a factor in motivation , adaptation, and reaction to the environment. Excessive amounts of stress, however, may lead to bodily harm. Stress can increase the risk of strokes, heart attacks, ulcers, dwarfism, and mental illnesses such as depression. Stress can be external and related to the environment, but may also be created by internal perceptions that cause an individual to experience anxiety or other negative emotions surrounding a situation, such as pressure, discomfort, etc., which they then deem stressful. Humans experience stress, or perceive things as threatening, when they do not believe that their resources for coping with obstacles (stimuli, people, situations, etc.) are enough for what the circumstances demand. When we think the demands being placed on us exceed our ability to cope, we then perceive stress
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Stressor
A STRESSOR is a chemical or biological agent , environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism . An event that triggers the stress response may include: * environmental stressors (hypo or hyper -thermic temperatures , elevated sound levels , over-illumination , overcrowding ) * daily stress events (e.g., traffic , lost keys, quality and quantity of physical activity) * life changes (e.g., divorce , bereavement) * workplace stressors (e.g., high job demand vs. low job control, repeated or sustained exertions, forceful exertions, extreme postures) * chemical stressors (e.g., tobacco , alcohol , drugs ) * social stressor (e.g., societal and family demands)Stressors have physical, chemical and mental responses inside of the body. Physical stressors produce mechanical stresses on skin, bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles and nerves that cause tissue deformation and in extreme cases tissue failure. Chemical stresses also produce biomechanical responses associated with metabolism and tissue repair. Physical stressors may produce pain and impair work performance. Chronic pain and impairment requiring medical attention may result from extreme physical stressors or if there is not sufficient recovery time between successive exposures. Stressors may also affect mental function and performance
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Autonomic Nervous System
The AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS), formerly the VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs . The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate , digestion , respiratory rate , pupillary response , urination , and sexual arousal . This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response . Within the brain, the autonomic nervous system is regulated by the hypothalamus . Autonomic functions include control of respiration , cardiac regulation (the cardiac control center), vasomotor activity (the vasomotor center ), and certain reflex actions such as coughing , sneezing , swallowing and vomiting . Those are then subdivided into other areas and are also linked to ANS subsystems and nervous systems external to the brain. The hypothalamus , just above the brain stem , acts as an integrator for autonomic functions, receiving ANS regulatory input from the limbic system to do so. The autonomic nervous system has two branches: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system . The sympathetic nervous system is often considered the "fight or flight " system, while the parasympathetic nervous system is often considered the "rest and digest" or "feed and breed" system
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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal Axis
The HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–ADRENAL AXIS (HPA AXIS or HTPA AXIS) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands : the hypothalamus , the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys). These organs and their interactions constitute the HPA axis, a major neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion , the immune system , mood and emotions, sexuality, and energy storage and expenditure. It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the midbrain that mediate the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). While steroid hormones are produced mainly in vertebrates, the physiological role of the HPA axis and corticosteroids in stress response is so fundamental that analogous systems can be found in invertebrates and monocellular organisms as well. The HPA axis, HPG axis , HPT axis , and the hypothalamic–neurohypophyseal system are the four major neuroendocrine systems through which the hypothalamus and pituitary direct neuroendocrine function
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Fight Or Flight Response
The FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT RESPONSE (also called HYPERAROUSAL, or the ACUTE STRESS RESPONSE) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event , attack , or threat to survival. It was first described by Walter Bradford Cannon . His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system , preparing the animal for fighting or fleeing. More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines , especially norepinephrine and epinephrine . The hormones estrogen , testosterone , and cortisol , as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin , also affect how organisms react to stress. This response is recognized as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms
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Sympathetic Nervous System
The SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (SNS) is one of the three main divisions of the autonomic nervous system , the others being the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS). The autonomic nervous system functions to regulate the body's unconscious actions. The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response . It is, however, constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis . The sympathetic nervous system is described as being complementary to the parasympathetic nervous system which stimulates the body to "feed and breed" and to (then) "rest-and-digest". CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Organization * 1.2 Information transmission * 2 Function * 2.1 Sensation * 2.2 Relationship with the parasympathetic nervous system * 3 Disorders * 4 History and etymology * 5 See also * 6 References STRUCTUREThere are two kinds of neurons involved in the transmission of any signal through the sympathetic system: pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic. The shorter preganglionic neurons originate from the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord specifically at T1 to L2~L3 , and travel to a ganglion , often one of the paravertebral ganglia , where they synapse with a postganglionic neuron. From there, the long postganglionic neurons extend across most of the body
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Acute Stress Reaction
ACUTE STRESS REACTION (also called ACUTE STRESS DISORDER, PSYCHOLOGICAL SHOCK, MENTAL SHOCK, or simply SHOCK) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual. It should not be confused with the unrelated circulatory condition of shock/hypoperfusion . Acute stress reaction (ASR) may develop into delayed stress reaction (better known as PTSD ) if stress is not correctly managed. ASR is characterized by re-living and avoiding reminders of an aversive event, as well as generalized hypervigilance after initial exposure to a traumatic event. ASD is differentiated from PTSD as a disorder that precedes it, and if symptoms last for more than one month, it will develop into PTSD. It can thus be thought of as the acute phase of PTSD. CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 History * 3 Causes * 4 Pathophysiology * 5 Diagnosis * 6 Treatment * 7 References SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSThe DSM-IV specifies that ASD must be accompanied by the presence of dissociative symptoms, which largely differentiates it from PTSD
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Parasympathetic Nervous System
The PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (usually abbreviated PSNS, not PNS, to avoid confusion with the peripheral nervous system ) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system , the others being the sympathetic nervous system and enteric nervous system . The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating the body's unconscious actions. The parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed" activities that occur when the body is at rest, especially after eating, including sexual arousal , salivation , lacrimation (tears), urination , digestion and defecation . Its action is described as being complementary to that of the sympathetic nervous system , which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response . Nerve fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system arise from the central nervous system . Specific nerves include several cranial nerves , specifically the oculomotor nerve , facial nerve , glossopharyngeal nerve , and vagus nerve . Three spinal nerves in the sacrum (S2-4), commonly referred to as the pelvic splanchnic nerves , also act as parasympathetic nerves. Because of its location, the parasympathetic system is commonly referred to as having "craniosacral outflow", which stands in contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, which is said to have "thoracolumbar outflow"
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Cortisol
CORTISOL is a steroid hormone , in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone . It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland . It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration . It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis , to suppress the immune system , and to aid in the metabolism of fat , protein , and carbohydrates . It also decreases bone formation
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Limbic System
The LIMBIC SYSTEM is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus , immediately beneath the cerebrum . It has also been referred to as the PALEOMAMMALIAN CORTEX. It is not a separate system but a collection of structures from the telencephalon , diencephalon , and mesencephalon . It includes the olfactory bulbs , hippocampus , hypothalamus , amygdala , anterior thalamic nuclei , fornix , columns of fornix , mammillary body , septum pellucidum , habenular commissure , cingulate gyrus , parahippocampal gyrus , limbic cortex , and limbic midbrain areas. The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion , behavior , motivation , long-term memory , and olfaction . Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories. Although the term only originated in the 1940s, some neuroscientists, including Joseph LeDoux , have suggested that the concept of a functionally unified limbic system should be abandoned as obsolete because it is grounded mainly in historical concepts of brain anatomy that are no longer accepted as accurate
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Prefrontal Cortex
In mammalian brain anatomy, the PREFRONTAL CORTEX (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe . The PFC contains Brodmann areas 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 24 , 25 , 32 , 44 , 45 , 46 , and 47 . Many authors have indicated an integral link between a person's will to live, personality, and the functions of the prefrontal cortex. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior , personality expression, decision making , and moderating social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals. The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function . Executive function relates to abilities to differentiate among conflicting thoughts, determine good and bad, better and best, same and different, future consequences of current activities, working toward a defined goal, prediction of outcomes, expectation based on actions, and social "control" (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially unacceptable outcomes). Frontal cortex supports concrete rule learning. More anterior regions along the rostro-caudal axis of frontal cortex support rule learning at higher levels of abstraction
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