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Streaming Audio
Streaming media
Streaming media
is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs)
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Webcast
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet
Internet
using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Essentially, webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet. The largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet
Internet
only "stations". Webcasting usually consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events
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Internet Television
Internet
Internet
television (or online television) is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, via the public Internet (which also carries other types of data), as opposed to dedicated terrestrial television via an over-the-air aerial system, cable television, and/or satellite television systems
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End-user (computer Science)
A user is a person who uses a computer or network service. Users generally use a system or a software product[1] without the technical expertise required to fully understand it.[1] Power users use advanced features of programs, though they are not necessarily capable of computer programming and system administration.[2][3] A user often has a user account and is identified to the system by a username (or user name). Other terms for username include login name, screenname (or screen name), nickname (or nick) and handle, which is derived from the identical Citizen's Band radio
Citizen's Band radio
term. Some software products provide services to other systems and have no direct end users.Contents1 End user 2 User account2.1 Username format3 Terminology 4 See also 5 ReferencesEnd user[edit] See also: End user End users are the ultimate human users (also referred to as operators) of a software product
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Downloading
In computer networks, to download is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server[1] such as a web server, an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems. This contrasts with uploading, where data is sent to a remote server. A download is a file offered for downloading or that has been downloaded, or the process of receiving such a file.Contents1 Definition 2 Copyright2.1 Litigations in European Union3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition[edit] Download
Download
data is sent downstream to an end-user, upstream from the providerDownloading generally transfers entire files for local storage and later use, as contrasted with streaming, where the data is used nearly immediately, while the transmission is still in progress, and which may not be stored long-term
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Media Player (software)
A media player is a computer program for playing multimedia files like videos, movies and music. Media players commonly display standard media control icons known from physical devices such as tape recorders and CD players, such as play (  ), pause (  ), fastforward, backforward, and stop (  ) buttons. In addition, they generally have progress bars (or "playback bars") to locate the current position in the duration of the media file. Mainstream operating systems have at least one built-in media player. For example, Windows
Windows
comes with Windows
Windows
Media Player while OS X
OS X
comes with QuickTime
QuickTime
Player. Linux
Linux
distributions may also come with a media players, such as SMPlayer, Amarok, Audacious, Banshee, MPlayer, Rhythmbox, Totem, VLC Media Player, and xine
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Telecommunications Network
A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes,[1] links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.[1] The transmission links connect the nodes together. The nodes use circuit switching, message switching or packet switching to pass the signal through the correct links and nodes to reach the correct destination terminal. Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients
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Radio
Radio
Radio
is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.[n 1] When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Television
Television
Television
(TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program ("TV show"), or the medium of television transmission. Television
Television
is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment and news. Television
Television
became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, and television sets became commonplace in homes, businesses, and institutions
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Books
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it. The book's most common modern form is that of a codex volume consisting of rectangular paper pages bound on one side, with a heavier cover and spine, so that it can fan open for reading. Books have taken other forms, such as scrolls, leaves on a string, or strips tied together; and the pages have been of parchment, vellum, papyrus, bamboo slips, palm leaves, silk, wood, and other materials.[1] The contents of books are also called books, as are other compositions of that length. For instance, Aristotle's Physics, the constituent sections of the Bible, and even the Egyptian Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
are called books independently of their physical form. Conversely, some long literary compositions are divided into books of varying sizes, which typically do not correspond to physically bound units
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Videotape
Videotape
Videotape
is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sound in addition. Information stored can be in the form of either an analog signal or digital signal. Videotape
Videotape
is used in both video tape recorders (VTRs) or, more commonly, videocassette recorders (VCRs) and camcorders. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram. Because video signals have a very high bandwidth, and stationary heads would require extremely high tape speeds, in most cases, a helical-scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions. Tape is a linear method of storing information and thus imposes delays to access a portion of the tape that is not already under the heads. The early 2000s saw the introduction and rise to prominence of high quality random-access video recording media such as hard disks and flash memory
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Compact Disc
Compact disc
Compact disc
(CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips
Philips
and Sony
Sony
and released in 1982. The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD. The first commercially available Audio CD player, the Sony
Sony
CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700  MiB of data
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Elevator Music
Background music refers to the various styles of music or soundscapes primarily intended to be passively listened to. It is not meant to be the main focus of an audience, but rather to supplement that which is meant to be focused upon. Music
Music
that is played at a low volume and is not the main focus of an audience is also referred to as background music. Traditional examples of background music include music played at various social gatherings and music played in certain retail venues
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Closed Captioning
Closed captioning
Closed captioning
(CC) and subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information. Both are typically used as a transcription of the audio portion of a program as it occurs (either verbatim or in edited form), sometimes including descriptions of non-speech elements. Other uses have been to provide a textual alternative language translation of a presentation's primary audio language that is usually burned-in (or "open") to the video and unselectable. HTML5
HTML5
defines subtitles as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue ... when sound is available but not understood" by the viewer (for example, dialogue in a foreign language) and captions as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue, sound effects, relevant musical cues, and other relevant audio information ..
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Live Stream
Live streaming
Live streaming
refers to online streaming media simultaneously recorded and broadcast in real time to the viewer. It is often simply referred to as streaming.[note 1] Live stream
Live stream
services encompass a wide variety of topics, from social media to video games. Apps such as Facebook
Facebook
Live, Periscope, and 17 include the streaming of scheduled promotions and celebrity events as well as streaming between users. Sites such as Twitch.tv
Twitch.tv
have become popular outlets for watching people play video games, such as in eSports, Let's Play-style gaming, or speedrunning. Lifecasting or lifestreaming is a real-life activity facilitated by live streaming. User interaction via chat rooms forms a major component of live streaming
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Ticker Tape
Ticker tape
Ticker tape
was the earliest digital electronic communications medium, transmitting stock price information over telegraph lines, in use between around 1870 through 1970. It consisted of a paper strip that ran through a machine called a stock ticker, which printed abbreviated company names as alphabetic symbols followed by numeric stock transaction price and volume information
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