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Straight-4
The INLINE-FOUR ENGINE or STRAIGHT-FOUR ENGINE is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase . The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft . Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a SLANT-FOUR. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for _longitudinal_, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I). The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars . However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become more powerful as engine size and power increase, so the more powerful engines used in larger cars generally are more complex designs with more than four cylinders. Today almost all manufacturers of four-cylinder engines for automobiles produce the inline-four layout, with Subaru and Porsche 718 flat-four engines being notable exceptions, and so FOUR-CYLINDER is usually synonymous with and a more widely used term than inline-four. The inline-four is the most common engine configuration in modern cars, while the V6 engine is the second most popular
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Cutaway (industrial)
A CUTAWAY, in the industrial sense, refers to the display of a manufactured product, (an engine , a pump , a regulator , etc. . .) where a portion of the exterior housing has been removed to reveal the internal components, (pistons , bearings , seals , etc. . .) and their relationship to the functionality of the product. Cutaways are typically used in product training, trade show environments, museum displays and for many additional applications. Cutaways are produced using a variety of methods by the manufacturer, by a cutaway service company, as mentioned above, or by an experienced machine shop. While 3D modeling and CAD (Computer Aided Drafting) programs continue to improve and bring us more features and benefits, the cutaway will continue to show the product as it appears in the real world, using actual parts and components to show relationships and functionality. * Cutaway of a Limited-slip differential manufactured by ZF * Cutaway of an Audi R8 4.2 V8 quattro coupe Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cutaway_(industrial) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Straight Engine
The STRAIGHT or INLINE ENGINE is an internal-combustion engine with all cylinders aligned in one row and having no offset. Usually found in four, six and eight cylinder configurations, they have been used in automobiles , locomotives and aircraft , although the term in-line has a broader meaning when applied to aircraft engines , see Inline engine (aviation) . A straight engine is considerably easier to build than an otherwise equivalent horizontally opposed or V engine , because both the cylinder bank and crankshaft can be milled from a single metal casting , and it requires fewer cylinder heads and camshafts . In-line engines are also smaller in overall physical dimensions than designs such as the radial , and can be mounted in any direction. Straight configurations are simpler than their V-shaped counterparts. Although six-cylinder engines are inherently balanced, the four-cylinder models are inherently off balance and rough, unlike 90-degree V fours and horizontally opposed 'boxer' four cylinders. CONTENTS * 1 Automobile use * 2 Bus and rail use * 3 Aviation use * 4 Motorcycle use * 5 References AUTOMOBILE USEThe inline-four engine is the most common four-cylinder configuration, whereas the straight-6 has largely given way to the V6 engine , which although not as naturally smooth-running is smaller in both length and height and easier to fit into the engine bay of smaller modern cars
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Internal Combustion Engine
An INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons , turbine blades , rotor or a nozzle . This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy . The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see _Otto engine _). The term _internal combustion engine_ usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine . A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines , jet engines and most rocket engines , each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine
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Four-cylinder Engine
For multiple-cylinder steam engines , see Compound steam engine
Compound steam engine
and Triple-expansion steam engine A cutaway illustration of a V6 , 24-valve , DOHC
DOHC
engine, an example of a Vee-configured six-cylinder engine. A flat-twin engine . A 1905 Wolseley straight-12 engine . An Fiat AS.6 engine for a Macchi -Castoldi M.C.72 racing seaplane . While it is often considered a " V24 engine ", it is actually two V12 engines bolted together in tandem, driving separate crankshafts . A MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINE is a reciprocating internal combustion engine with multiple cylinders . It can be either a 2-stroke or 4-stroke engine, and can be either Diesel or spark-ignition . The cylinders and the crankshaft which is driven by and co-ordinates the motion of the pistons can be configured in a wide variety of ways. Multi-cylinder engines offer a number of advantages over single-cylinder engines , chiefly with their ability to neutralize imbalances by having corresponding mechanisms moving in opposing directions during the operation of the engine
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Cylinder (engine)
A CYLINDER is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump , the space in which a piston travels. Multiple cylinders are commonly arranged side by side in a bank, or engine block , which is typically cast from aluminum or cast iron before receiving precision machine work. Cylinders may be SLEEVED (lined with a harder metal ) or SLEEVELESS (with a wear-resistant coating such as Nikasil ). A sleeveless engine may also be referred to as a "parent-bore engine". A cylinder's displacement, or swept volume , can be calculated by multiplying its cross-sectional area (the square of half the bore by pi ) by the distance the piston travels within the cylinder (the stroke ). The engine displacement can be calculated by multiplying the swept volume of one cylinder by the number of cylinders. Presented symbolically, (Cylinder Volume) = ( bore 2 ) 2 Stroke {displaystyle {text{(Cylinder Volume)}}=pi cdot left({frac {text{bore}}{2}}right)^{2}cdot {text{Stroke}}} (Engine Displacement) = (Cylinder Volume) (Number of Cylinders) {displaystyle {text{(Engine Displacement)}}={text{(Cylinder Volume)}}cdot {text{(Number of Cylinders)}}} A piston is seated inside each cylinder by several metal piston rings fitted around its outside surface in machined grooves; typically two for compressional sealing and one to seal the oil
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Crankcase
In an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type , the CRANKCASE is the housing for the crankshaft . The enclosure forms the largest cavity in the engine and is located below the cylinder(s) , which in a multicylinder engine is usually integrated into one or several cylinder blocks . Crankcases have often been discrete parts, but more often they are integral with the cylinder bank(s), forming an engine block . Nevertheless, the area around the crankshaft is still usually called the crankcase. Crankcases and other basic engine structural components (e.g., cylinders, cylinder blocks, cylinder heads , and integrated combinations thereof) are typically made of cast iron or cast aluminium via sand casting . Today the foundry processes are usually highly automated , with a few skilled workers to manage the casting of thousands of parts. A crankcase often has an opening in the bottom to which an oil pan is attached with a gasketed bolted joint . Some crankcase designs fully surround the crank's main bearing journals, whereas many others form only one half, with a bearing cap forming the other. Some crankcase areas require no structural strength from the oil pan itself (in which case the oil pan is typically stamped from sheet steel ), whereas other crankcase designs do (in which case the oil pan is a casting in its own right)
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Piston
A PISTON is a component of reciprocating engines , reciprocating pumps , gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders , among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings . In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod . In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall. CONTENTS* 1 Piston
Piston
engines * 1.1 Internal combustion engines * 1.1.1 Trunk pistons * 1.1.2 Crosshead pistons * 1.1.3 Slipper pistons * 1.1.4 Deflector pistons * 1.2 Steam engines * 2 Pumps * 2.1 For liquids * 2.2 For gases * 3 Air cannons * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links PISTON ENGINES Main article: Reciprocating engine INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Internal combustion engine piston, sectioned to show the gudgeon pin. An internal combustion engine is acted upon by the pressure of the expanding combustion gases in the combustion chamber space at the top of the cylinder. This force then acts downwards through the connecting rod and onto the crankshaft
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Crankshaft
A CRANKSHAFT—related to _crank _—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion . In a reciprocating engine , it translates reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion; whereas in a reciprocating compressor , it converts the rotational motion into reciprocating motion. In order to do the conversion between two motions, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or "crankpins ", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach. It is typically connected to a flywheel to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle , and sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsional vibrations often caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal
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Engine Balance
ENGINE BALANCE refers to those factors in the design, production, engine tuning , maintenance and the operation of an engine that benefit from being balanced. Major considerations are: * Balancing of structural and operational elements within an engine * Longevity and performance * Power and efficiency * Performance and weight/size/cost * Environmental cost and utility * Noise/vibration and performanceThis article is currently limited to structural and operational balance within an engine in general, and balancing of piston engine components in particular
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Economy Cars
An ECONOMY CAR is an automobile that is designed for low-cost purchase and operation. Typical economy cars are small (compact or subcompact ), lightweight, and inexpensive to buy. Economy car designers are forced by stringent design constraints to be inventive. Many innovations in automobile design were originally developed for economy cars, such as the Ford Model T
Ford Model T
and the Austin Mini
Austin Mini
. Gordon Murray
Gordon Murray
, the Formula 1 and Mclaren F1
Mclaren F1
designer, said when designing his new Murray T.25 city car: "I would say that building a car to sell for six thousand pounds and designing that for a high-volume production, where you have all the quality issues under control, is a hundred times more difficult than designing a Mclaren F1, or even a racing car. It is certainly the biggest challenge I've ever had from a design point of view." The alternative approach, other than innovating to build a low-cost car, is to build a stripped-down, no-frills version of a conventional car. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Background * 3 History * 3.1 1886-1920 * 3.2 1920s * 3.3 1930s-1945 * 3.4 1945–1960 * 3.5 1960s * 3.6 1970s * 3.7 1980s * 3.8 1990s * 4 Economy cars since 2000 * 5 List of economy cars * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography DEFINITION This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Flat-four Engine
A FLAT-FOUR or HORIZONTALLY OPPOSED-FOUR is a type of four-cylinder engine , a flat engine with four cylinders arranged horizontally in two banks of two cylinders on each side of a central crankcase . CONTENTS * 1 Boxer-four * 2 Balance and smoothness * 3 Use in automobiles * 4 Use in motorcycles * 5 Use in aircraft * 6 References BOXER-FOUR Boxer-four animation The pistons are usually mounted on the crankshaft so that opposing pistons move back and forth in opposite directions at the same time, somewhat like boxing competitors punching their gloves together before a fight, which has led to it being referred to as a "boxer" engine. The design is rarely seen with shared crank throws (See Coventry Climax FWMW for such a non-boxer flat engine), so "flat-four" and "boxer-four" are usually used synonymously. The configuration results in inherently good balance of the reciprocating parts, a low centre of gravity, and a very short engine length. The layout also lends itself to efficient air cooling with excellent thermal balance. However, it is an expensive design to manufacture, and somewhat too wide for compact automobile engine compartments, which makes it more suitable for cruising motorcycles and aircraft than ordinary passenger cars
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V6 Engine
A V6 ENGINE is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement (however, much larger examples have been produced for use in trucks), shorter than the inline 4 and more compact than the V8 engine . Because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the widely used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. CONTENTS * 1 Applications * 2 History * 3 Balance and smoothness * 4 V angles * 4.1 60 degrees * 4.2 90 degrees * 4.3 120 degrees * 4.4 Narrow angle VR6 * 4.5 Other angles * 5 Odd and even firing * 6 Racing use * 7 Motorcycle use * 8 Marine use * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links APPLICATIONSThe V6 is commercially successful in mid-size cars in the modern age of high fuel prices and price sensitive consumers because it is less expensive to build and has better fuel consumption than the V8, while being smoother in large sizes than the inline 4, which develops increasingly serious vibration problems in larger engines. The wider 90° V6 will fit in an engine compartment designed for a V8, providing a low-cost alternative to the V8 in an expensive car, while the narrower 60° V6 will fit in most engine compartments designed for an I4, proving a more powerful and smoother alternative engine to the four
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Automobile
A CAR (or AUTOMOBILE) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation . Most definitions of _car_ say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires , and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car, when German inventor Karl Benz built his Benz Patent-Motorwagen . Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T , an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company . Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning , navigation systems , and in car entertainment . Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine , fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels . This causes air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming
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Engine Displacement
ENGINE DISPLACEMENT is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from _top dead centre _ (TDC) to _bottom dead centre_ (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres (_cc_ or _cm3_), litres (_l_), or cubic inches (C