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Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock and the site of Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
Park near Stone Mountain, Georgia. At its summit, the elevation is 1,686 feet (514 m) MSL and 825 feet (251 m) above the surrounding area. Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
is well known for not only its geology, but also the enormous rock relief on its north face, the largest bas-relief in the world.[1] The carving depicts three Confederate figures: Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
and Stonewall Jackson. Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
was once owned by the Venable Brothers and was the site of the founding of the second Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in 1915
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Stream Pool
A stream pool, in hydrology, is a stretch of a river or stream in which the water depth is above average and the water velocity is quite below average.[1]Contents1 Formation 2 Habitat 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksFormation[edit] A stream pool may be bedded with sediment or armoured with gravel, and in some cases the pool formations may have been formed as basins in exposed bedrock formations. Plunge pools, or plunge basins, are stream pools formed by the action of waterfalls. Habitat[edit] This portion of a stream often provides a specialized aquatic ecosystem habitat for organisms that have difficulty feeding or navigating in swifter reaches of the stream, or in seasonally warmer water
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Tourmaline
Tourmaline
Tourmaline
( /ˈtʊərməliːn/ TOOR-mə-leen) is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline
Tourmaline
is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. According to the Madras Tamil Lexicon [3] the name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thoramalli" (තෝරමල්ලි) or "tōra- molli", which is applied to a group of gemstones found in Sri Lanka. According to the Madras Tamil Lexicon, the Tamil "tuvara-malli" (துவரைமல்லி) and Toramalli are also derived from the Sinhalese root word
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Crust (geology)
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite. It is usually distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup; however, in the case of icy satellites, it may be distinguished based on its phase (solid crust vs. liquid mantle). The crusts of Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Io, and other planetary bodies formed via igneous processes, and were later modified by erosion, impact cratering, volcanism, and sedimentation. Most terrestrial planets have fairly uniform crusts. Earth, however, has two distinct types: continental crust and oceanic crust
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Gwinnett County
Gwinnett County is a county in the north central portion of the U.S. state of Georgia.[1] As of 2017, the population is estimated to be 920,260, making it the second-most populous county in Georgia.[2] Its county seat is Lawrenceville.[3] The county is named for Button Gwinnett, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.[4] Gwinnett County is included in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Adjacent counties3 Transportation3.1 Airport 3.2 Major roads and expressways 3.3 Transit Systems 3.4 Pedestrians and cycling4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 Government and politics6.1 Gwinnett County Board of Commissioners 6.2 United States Congress 6.3 Georgia General Assembly6.3.1 Georgia State Senate6.4 Georgia House of Representatives7 Hospitals 8 Media 9 Education9.1 Primary and secondary schools 9.2 Private education 9.3 Colleges and universities


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Granodiorite
Granodiorite
Granodiorite
( /ˌɡrænoʊˈdaɪəraɪt, -nə-/)[1][2] is a phaneritic-textured intrusive igneous rock similar to granite, but containing more plagioclase feldspar than orthoclase feldspar. According to the QAPF diagram, granodiorite has a greater than 20% quartz by volume, and between 65% to 90% of the feldspar is plagioclase. A greater amount of plagioclase would designate the rock as tonalite. Granodiorite
Granodiorite
is felsic to intermediate in composition. It is the intrusive igneous equivalent of the extrusive igneous dacite. It contains a large amount of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) rich plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, and minor amounts of muscovite mica as the lighter colored mineral components. Biotite
Biotite
and amphiboles often in the form of hornblende are more abundant in granodiorite than in granite, giving it a more distinct two-toned or overall darker appearance
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Quartz
Quartz
Quartz
is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2. Quartz
Quartz
is the second most abundant mineral in Earth's continental crust, behind feldspar.[7] Quartz
Quartz
crystals are chiral, and exist in two forms, the normal α-quartz and the high-temperature β-quartz. The transformation from α-quartz to β-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C (846 K). Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant change in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature limit. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones
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Plagioclase Feldspar
Plagioclase
Plagioclase
is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a continuous solid solution series, more properly known as the plagioclase feldspar series (from the Ancient Greek for "oblique fracture", in reference to its two cleavage angles). This was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel (1796–1872) in 1826. The series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers (with respective compositions NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8), where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the mineral's crystal lattice structure
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Microcline
Microcline
Microcline
(KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is a potassium-rich alkali feldspar. Microcline
Microcline
typically contains minor amounts of sodium. It is common in granite and pegmatites. Microcline
Microcline
forms during slow cooling of orthoclase; it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. Sanidine
Sanidine
is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature
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Muscovite
Muscovite
Muscovite
(also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica[5]) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). It has a highly perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably thin laminae (sheets) which are often highly elastic. Sheets of muscovite 5 m × 3 m have been found in Nellore, India.[6] Muscovite
Muscovite
with beryl (var. morganite) from Paprok, Afghanistan Muscovite
Muscovite
(var. alurgite), from Prabornaz Mine, Aosta Valley, Italy Muscovite
Muscovite
has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of 2–2.25 parallel to the [001] face, 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2.76–3. It can be colorless or tinted through grays, browns, greens, yellows, or (rarely) violet or red, and can be transparent or translucent. It is anisotropic and has high birefringence
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Biotite
Biotite
Biotite
is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg,Fe) 3AlSi 3O 10(F,OH) 2. More generally, it refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite; more aluminous end-members include siderophyllite. Biotite
Biotite
was named by J.F.L. Hausmann in 1847 in honor of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot, who performed early research into the many optical properties of mica.[4] Biotite
Biotite
is a sheet silicate. Iron, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, oxygen, and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich than phlogopite
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Euhedral
Euhedral crystals are those that are well-formed, with sharp, easily recognised faces. The opposite is anhedral: a rock with an anhedral texture is composed of mineral grains that have no well-formed crystal faces or cross-section shape in thin section. Anhedral crystal growth occurs in a competitive environment with no free space for the formation of crystal faces. An intermediate texture with some crystal face-formation is termed subhedral. Normally, crystals do not form smooth faces or sharp crystal outlines. Many crystals grow from cooling liquid magma. As magma cools, the crystals grow and eventually touch each other, preventing crystal faces from forming properly or at all. However, when snowflakes crystallize, they do not touch each other. Thus, snowflakes form euhedral, six-sided twinned crystals
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Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
(/ˌæpəˈlæʃɪn, -ˈleɪtʃɪn/ ( listen);[note 1] French: les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps
Alps
and the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
before experiencing natural erosion.[3][4] The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east-west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians
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Pegmatite
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in);[1] such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. The word pegmatite derives from Homeric Greek, πήγνυμι (pegnymi), which means “to bind together”, in reference to the intertwined crystals of quartz and feldspar in the texture known as graphic granite.[2] Most pegmatites are composed of quartz, feldspar and mica, having a similar silicic composition as granite. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole, Ca-plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, feldspathoids and other unusual minerals are known, found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites, with crystals usually over 5 cm in size
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Felsic
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.[1] It is contrasted with mafic rocks, which are relatively richer in magnesium and iron. Felsic refers to those rocks rich in silicate minerals, magma, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium. They are usually light in color and have specific gravities less than 3. The most common felsic rock is granite. Common felsic minerals include quartz, muscovite, orthoclase, and the sodium-rich plagioclase feldspars.Contents1 Terminology 2 Classification of felsic rocks 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesTerminology[edit] In modern usage, the term acid rock, although sometimes used as a synonym, refers to a high-silica-content (greater than 63% SiO2 by weight) volcanic rock, such as rhyolite. The term was used more broadly in older geologic literature
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Dike (geology)
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body. Dikes can be either magmatic or sedimentary in origin. Magmatic dikes form when magma intrudes into a crack then crystallizes as a sheet intrusion, either cutting across layers of rock or through a contiguous mass of rock. Clastic dikes are formed when sediment fills a pre-existing crack.[1]Vertical basalt dikes cutting horizontal lava flows, Lord Howe Island, AustraliaA small dike on the Baranof Cross-Island Trail, AlaskaMagmatic dikes radiating from West Spanish Peak, Colorado, U.S.Contents1 Magmatic dikes 2 Sedimentary dikes 3 See also 4 ReferencesMagmatic dikes[edit] An intrusive dike is an igneous body with a very high aspect ratio, which means that its thickness is usually much smaller than the other two dimensions. Thickness can vary from sub-centimeter scale to many meters, and the lateral dimensions can extend over many kilometres
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