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Stone Age
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eThe Stone Age
Stone Age
was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface
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Metalworking
Metalworking
Metalworking
is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills, processes, and tools. Metalworking
Metalworking
is a science, art,[1][2] hobby, industry and trade. Its historical roots span cultures, civilizations, and millennia. Metalworking
Metalworking
has evolved from the discovery of smelting various ores, producing malleable and ductile metal useful for tools and adornments. Modern metalworking processes, though diverse and specialized, can be categorized as forming, cutting, or joining processes
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Recent African Origin Of Modern Humans
The recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is, in paleoanthropology, the dominant[1][2] model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans ( Homo
Homo
sapiens). The model proposes a "single origin" of Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
in the taxonomic sense, precluding parallel evolution of traits considered anatomically modern,[3][4] but not precluding limited admixture between H. sapiens and archaic humans. H. sapiens most likely developed in the Horn of Africa between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago. The "recent African origin" model proposes that all modern non-African populations are substantially descended from populations of H
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Gozo
Gozo (/ˈɡoʊ.zoʊ/; Maltese: Għawdex, pronounced [ˈaˤːw.dɛʃ],[2] formerly Gaulos)[3][4] is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The island is part of Malta. After the island of Malta itself, it is the second-largest island in the archipelago. Compared to its southeastern neighbour, Gozo is more rural and known for its scenic hills, which are featured on its coat of arms.[5] The island of Gozo has long been associated with Ogygia, the island home of the nymph Calypso in Homer's Odyssey. In that story, Calypso, possessed of great supernatural powers, and in love with Odysseus, holds him captive for a number of years, until finally releasing him to continue his journey home.[6] As of March 2015, the island has a population of around 37,342 (out of Malta's total 445,000), and its inhabitants are known as Gozitans (Maltese: Għawdxin)
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Hominina
Homo
Homo
sapiens † Homo
Homo
erectus other species or subspecies suggestedSynonymsSynonyms Africanthropus
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Ġgantija
Ġgantija (Maltese pronunciation: [dʒɡanˈtiːja], "Giants' Tower") is a megalithic temple complex from the Neolithic on the Mediterranean island of Gozo. The Ġgantija temples are the earliest of the Megalithic Temples of Malta. The Ġgantija temples are older than the pyramids of Egypt. Their makers erected the two Ġgantija temples during the Neolithic (c. 3600–2500 BCE), which makes these temples more than 5500 years old and the world's second oldest existing manmade religious structures after Göbekli Tepe. Together with other similar structures, these have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Megalithic Temples of Malta. The temples are elements of a ceremonial site in a fertility rite. Researchers have the numerous figurines and statues found on site associated with that cult. According to local Gozitan folklore, a giantess who ate nothing but broad beans and honey bore a child from a man of the common people
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Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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Rock (geology)
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Rock has been used by humankind throughout history. The minerals and metals in rocks have been essential to human civilization.[1] Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.Contents1 Classification1.1 Igneous rock 1.2 Sedimentary rock 1.3 Metamorphic rock2 Human use2.1 Mining3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClassification See also: Formation of rocksRock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica.Rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound arranged in an orderly manner
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Archaeological Record
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past. It is one of the core concepts in archaeology,[1] the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the archaeological record.[2] Archaeological theory
Archaeological theory
is used to interpret the archaeological record for a better understanding of human cultures. The archaeological record can consist of the earliest ancient findings as well as contemporary artifacts. Human activity has had a large impact on the archaeological record. Destructive human processes, such as agriculture and land development, may damage or destroy potential archaeological sites.[3] Other threats to the archaeological record include natural phenomena and scavenging. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be a destructive science for the finite resources of the archaeological record are lost to excavation
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Paranthropus
Paranthropus
Paranthropus
aethiopicus † Paranthropus
Paranthropus
boisei † Paranthropus
Paranthropus
robustus Paranthropus
Paranthropus
(from Greek παρα, para "beside"; άνθρωπος, ánthropos "human") is a genus of extinct hominins. Also known as robust australopithecines, they were bipedal hominids that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominids (Australopithecus) 2.7 million years ago.[1] Members of this genus are characterised by robust craniodental anatomy, including gorilla-like sagittal cranial crests, which suggest strong muscles of mastication, and broad, grinding herbivorous teeth
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Australopithecus
†A. africanus †A. deyiremeda †A. garhi †A. sediba Also called Paranthropus †P. aethiopicus †P. robustus †P. boisei Also called Praeanthropus †A. afarensis †A. anamensis †A. bahrelghazali Australopithecus
Australopithecus
(/ˌɒstrələˈpɪθɪkəs, -loʊ-/ OS-trə-lo-PITH-i-kəs;[1] from Latin australis, meaning 'southern', and Greek πίθηκος (pithekos), meaning 'ape'; informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina [2][3] which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus,[4] Ardipithecus,[4] and Praeanthropus [5]) is an extinct genus of hominins. From paleontological and archaeological evidence, the Australopithecus genus apparently evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct two million years ago
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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene.[6] As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Common Era
Common Era or Current Era (CE)[1] is a name for a calendar era widely used around the world today. The era preceding CE is known as before the Common or Current Era (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era
Dionysian era
system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord")[2] and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2018 CE" corresponds to "AD 2018" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".[2][3][4][a] Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(and its predecessor, the Julian calendar)
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Natufian Culture
The Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
Natufian culture
Natufian culture
(/nəˈtuːfiən/[1]) existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean. The culture was unusual in that it supported a sedentary or semi-sedentary population even before the introduction of agriculture. The Natufian communities may be the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements of the region, which may have been the earliest in the world.[citation needed] Natufians founded Jericho
Jericho
which may be the oldest city in the world. Some evidence suggests deliberate cultivation of cereals, specifically rye, by the Natufian culture, at Tell Abu Hureyra, the site of earliest evidence of agriculture in the world.[2] Generally, though, Natufians exploited wild cereals. Animals hunted included gazelles.[3] According to Christy G
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