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Stocking Frame
A STOCKING FRAME was a mechanical knitting machine used in the textiles industry. It was invented by William Lee of Calverton near Nottingham
Nottingham
in 1589. Its use, known traditionally as FRAMEWORK KNITTING, was the first major stage in the mechanisation of the textile industry, and played an important part in the early history of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. It was adapted to knit cotton and to do ribbing, and by 1800 had been adapted as a lace making machine . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Development * 4 Influence on the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
* 5 Derby
Derby
Rib machine * 6 Lace
Lace
making * 7 Postscript * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DESCRIPTION Six stages in the knitting machine cycle Lee's machine consisted of a stout wooden frame
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Derby
DERBY (/ˈdɑːrbi/ ( listen ) DAR-bee ) is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which it was traditionally the county town . At the 2011 census , the population was 248,700. Derby
Derby
gained city status in 1977. Derby
Derby
was settled by Romans – who established the town of Derventio – Saxons and Vikings, who made Derby
Derby
one of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw . Initially a market town , Derby
Derby
grew rapidly in the industrial era. Home to Lombe\'s Mill , an early British factory, Derby
Derby
has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution . It contains the southern part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site
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John Lombe
JOHN LOMBE (1693 in Norwich
Norwich
– November 20, 1722 in Derby) was a silk spinner in the 18th century Derby
Derby
, England
England
. BIOGRAPHYLombe was born in Norwich
Norwich
in approximately 1693, the son of a worsted weaver. He was a younger half-brother of Thomas Lombe , who after his death, would go on to amass a fortune as a silk merchant in Norwich and London
London
. In the early 18th century, the centre for producing silk stockings by framework knitting had moved to the Midlands from London
London
and the demand for spun silk was outstripping demand. Lombe had obtained employment at an abortive silk mill built in Derby
Derby
by George Sorocold for the silk spinner Thomas Cotchett of Derby, built on the River Derwent
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Wool
WOOL is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids . Wool
Wool
has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped and elastic . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Processing * 2.1 Shearing * 2.2 Scouring * 3 Quality * 4 Fineness and yield * 5 History * 6 Production * 7 Marketing * 7.1 Australia
Australia
* 7.2 Other countries * 8 Yarn * 9 Uses * 10 Carbon footprint * 11 Events * 12 See also * 12.1 Production * 12.2 Processing * 12.3 Refined products * 12.4 Organizations * 12.5 Miscellaneous wool * 13 References * 14 External links CHARACTERISTICS Champion hogget fleece, Walcha Show Wool
Wool
is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin
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Derby Rib
JEDEDIAH STRUTT (1726 – 7 May 1797) or Jedidiah Strutt – as he spelled it – was a hosier and cotton spinner from Belper
Belper
, England. Strutt and his brother-in-law William Woollat developed an attachment to the stocking frame that allowed the production of ribbed stockings. Their machine became known as the Derby
Derby
Rib machine, and the stockings it produced quickly became popular. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 The Derby
Derby
Rib * 3 Cotton mills * 4 Family * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEHe was born in South Normanton near Alfreton
Alfreton
in Derbyshire
Derbyshire
into a farming family in 1726. In 1740 he became an apprentice wheelwright in Findern . In 1754 he inherited a small stock of animals from an uncle and married Elizabeth Woolatt in 1755 in Derbyshire
Derbyshire

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Milford, Derbyshire
MILFORD is a village in Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, England, on the River Derwent , between Duffield and Belper
Belper
on the A6 trunk road . Until the end of the 18th century it was no more than a few houses near the point, about a quarter of a mile further south, where a Roman road from the Wirksworth
Wirksworth
lead mines forded the river. The road still exists as it passes across the Chevin hill and descends into the village by what is now Sunny Hill. It is thought to have then proceeded along the east bank of the river to the Roman garrison of Derventio, in what is now Derby
Derby
where it connected with Rykneld Street . However, next to it was Makeney where, in 1554, Burchard Kranich built the first Smeltmill for extracting lead from its ore
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Belper
Coordinates : 53°01′44″N 1°28′30″W / 53.029°N 1.475°W / 53.029; -1.475 BELPER King Street Belper
Belper
parish highlighted within Derbyshire POPULATION 21,823 (civil parish, 2011) OS GRID REFERENCE SK351476 CIVIL PARISH * Belper DISTRICT * Amber Valley SHIRE COUNTY *
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Fustian
FUSTIAN is a variety of heavy cloth woven from cotton , chiefly prepared for menswear. It is also used figuratively to refer to pompous, inflated or pretentious writing or speech, from at least the time of Shakespeare . This literary use is because the cloth type was often used as padding, hence, the purposeless words are fustian. CONTENTS * 1 History and use * 2 Manufacture * 3 Political significance * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY AND USE Corduroy: This modern diagram shows the warp (3) and the long (red-4) and short (green-5) weft threads; traditionally the knife (1) and the guide (2) are attached and the cutting motion is upwards
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Richard Arkwright
SIR RICHARD ARKWRIGHT (22 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution . Although his patents were eventually overturned, he is credited with inventing the spinning frame , which following the transition to water power was renamed the water frame . He also patented a rotary carding engine that transformed raw cotton into cotton lap. Arkwright's achievement was to combine power, machinery, semi-skilled labour and the new raw material of cotton to create mass-produced yarn . His skills of organization made him, more than anyone else, the creator of the modern factory system , especially in his mill at Cromford , Derbyshire , now preserved as part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site
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Cromford
CROMFORD is a village and civil parish, two miles to the south of Matlock in the Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Dales district in Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, England. The population at the 2011 Census was 1,433. It is principally known for its historical connection with Richard Arkwright
Richard Arkwright
, and the nearby Cromford Mill which he built outside the village in 1771. Cromford
Cromford
is in the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage site
World Heritage site

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Water Frame
A WATER FRAME is a water-powered spinning frame which was an easy way to create cotton thread. The first time the machine was used in 1768. It was able to spin 128 threads at a time, which was an easier and faster method than ever before. It was developed by Richard Arkwright , who patented the technology in 1767. The design was partly based on a spinning machine built for Thomas Highs
Thomas Highs
by clock maker John Kay , who was hired by Arkwright. Being run on water power, it produced stronger and harder yarn than the then famous 'Spinning Jenny', thus, greatly ushering the factory system. CONTENTS * 1 Principle of operation * 2 Cromford
Cromford
* 3 References * 4 External links PRINCIPLE OF OPERATIONThe water frame is the name given to a spinning frame, when water power is used to drive it. Both are credited to Richard Arkwright who patented the technology in 1768
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Purl Stitch
KNITTING is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric for use in many types of garments . Knitting creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches , in a line or tube. Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric
Knitted fabric
consists of a number of consecutive rows of intermeshing of loops. As each row progresses, a newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from the prior row, placed on the gaining needle, and the loops from the prior row are then pulled off the other needle. Knitting may be done by hand or by using a machine . Different types of yarns (fibre type, texture, and twist), needle sizes, and stitch types may be used to achieve knitted fabrics with different properties (color, texture, weight, heat retention, look, water resistance, and/or integrity)
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Ribbing (knitting)
In knitting , RIBBING is a pattern in which vertical stripes of stockinette stitch alternate with vertical stripes of reverse stockinette stitch . These two types of stripes may be separated by other stripes in which knit and purl stitches alternate vertically; such PLISSé stripes add width and depth to ribbing but not more elasticity . The number of knit and purl stripes (WALES) are generally equal, although they need not be. When they are equal, the fabric has no tendency to curl, unlike stockinette stitch. Such ribbing looks the same on both sides and is useful for garments such as scarves . Ribbing is notated by (number of knit stitches) × (number of purl stitches). Thus, 1×1 ribbing has one knit stitch, followed by one purl stitch, followed by one knit stitch, and so on. Ribbing has a strong tendency to contract laterally, forming small pleats in which the purl stitches recede and the knit stitches come forward
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Knitting
KNITTING is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric for use in many types of garments . Knitting
Knitting
creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches , in a line or tube. Knitting
Knitting
has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric
Knitted fabric
consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. As each row progresses, a newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from the prior row, placed on the gaining needle, and the loops from the prior row are then pulled off the other needle. Knitting
Knitting
may be done by hand or by using a machine . Different types of yarns (fibre type, texture, and twist), needle sizes, and stitch types may be used to achieve knitted fabrics with different properties (color, texture, weight, heat retention, look, water resistance, and/or integrity)
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Knitting Needle
A KNITTING NEEDLE or KNITTING PIN is a tool in hand-knitting to produce knitted fabrics . They generally have a long shaft and taper at their end, but they are not nearly as sharp as sewing needles . Their purpose is two-fold. The long shaft holds the active (unsecured) stitches of the fabric, to prevent them from unravelling, whereas the tapered ends are used to form new stitches. Most commonly, a new stitch is formed by inserting the tapered end through an acti