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Stock Phrase
A CLICHé or CLICHE (/ˈkliːʃeɪ/ or /klɪˈʃeɪ/ ) is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. In phraseology , the term has taken on a more technical meaning, referring to an expression imposed by conventionalized linguistic usage . The term is frequently used in modern culture for an action or idea that is expected or predictable, based on a prior event. Typically pejorative, "clichés" may or may not be true. Some are stereotypes , but some are simply truisms and facts . Clichés often are employed for comic effect, typically in fiction. Most phrases now considered clichéd originally were regarded as striking, but have lost their force through overuse
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Three-volume Novel
The THREE-VOLUME NOVEL (sometimes three-Decker or triple Decker) was a standard form of publishing for British fiction during the nineteenth century. It was a significant stage in the development of the modern Western novel as a form of popular literature. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 References in literature * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References HISTORY An 1885 cartoon from the magazine Punch , mocking the cliched language attributed to three-volume novels The format does not correspond closely to what would now be considered a trilogy of novels. In a time when books were relatively expensive to print and bind, publishing longer works of fiction had a particular relationship to a reading public who borrowed books from commercial circulating libraries . A novel divided into three parts could create a demand (Part I whetting an appetite for Parts II and III). The income from Part I could also be used to pay for the printing costs of the later parts
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Cartoon
A CARTOON is a type of two-dimensional illustration , possibly animated. While the specific definition has changed over time, modern usage refers to (a) a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic artistic style of drawing or painting , (b) an image or series of images intended for satire , caricature , or humor , or (c) a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. An artist who creates cartoons is called a cartoonist . The concept originated in the Middle Ages and first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, fresco , tapestry , or stained glass window. In the 19th century, it came to refer to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers, and after the early 20th century, it referred to comic strips and animated films
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Phraseology
In linguistics , PHRASEOLOGY is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms , phrasal verbs , and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes ), in which the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently. For example, ‘ Dutch auction ’ is composed of the words Dutch ‘of or pertaining to the Netherlands’ and auction ‘a public sale in which goods are sold to the highest bidder’, but its meaning is not ‘a sale in the Netherlands where goods are sold to the highest bidder’. Instead, the phrase has a conventionalized meaning referring to any auction where, instead of rising, the prices fall
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Stereotype
In social psychology , a STEREOTYPE is any thought widely adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole. These thoughts or beliefs may or may not accurately reflect reality . However, this is only a fundamental psychological definition of a stereotype. Within psychology and spanning across other disciplines, there are different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping that provide their own expanded definition. Some of these definitions share commonalities, though each one may also harbor unique aspects that may contradict the others
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Truism
A TRUISM is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device, and is the opposite of falsism . In philosophy , a sentence which asserts incomplete truth conditions for a proposition may be regarded as a truism. An example of such a sentence would be "Under appropriate conditions, the sun rises." Without contextual support – a statement of what those appropriate conditions are – the sentence is true but incontestable. A statement which is true by definition (for example, the Lapalissade "If he were not dead, he would still be alive") would also be considered a truism. The word may also be used with a different sense in rhetoric , to disguise the fact that a proposition is really just an opinion
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Fact
A FACT is something that is postulated to have occurred or to be correct. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability —that is, whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience . Standard reference works are often used to check facts. Scientific facts are verified by repeatable careful observation or measurement (by experiments or other means). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and usage * 2 In philosophy * 2.1 Correspondence and the slingshot argument * 2.2 Compound facts * 2.3 Fact–value distinction * 2.4 Factual–counterfactual distinction * 3 In science * 3.1 The scientific method * 4 In history * 5 In law * 5.1 Legal pleadings * 5.2 Submissions by _Amicus Curiae_ * 6 See also * 7 Reference ETYMOLOGY AND USAGEThe word FACT derives from the Latin _factum_, and was first used in English with the same meaning: _a thing done or performed_, a meaning now obsolete
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Gérard De Nerval
GéRARD DE NERVAL (French: ; 22 May 1808 – 26 January 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French writer, poet, essayist and translator GéRARD LABRUNIE. A major figure of French romanticism , he is best known for his poems and novellas, especially the collection Les Filles du feu (The Daughters of Fire), which includes the novella Sylvie and the poem "El Desdichado". He played a major role in introducing French readers to the works of German Romantic authors, including Klopstock , Schiller , Bürger and Goethe . His later work delved into the relationship between poetry and madness, reality and fiction, and dreams and life. He was a major influence on Marcel Proust , André Breton and Surrealism
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Analogy
ANALOGY (from Greek ἀναλογία, _analogia_, "proportion" ) is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction , induction , and abduction , where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word _analogy_ can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy . Rutherford\'s model of the atom (modified by Niels Bohr ) made an analogy between the atom and the solar system
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Exaggeration
EXAGGERATION is a representation of something in an excessive manner. The exaggerator has been a familiar figure in Western culture since at least Aristotle
Aristotle
's discussion of the alazon : 'the boaster is regarded as one who pretends to have distinguished qualities which he possesses either not at all or to a lesser degree than he pretends...exaggerating'. It is the opposite of minimisation
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Stereotype (printing)
In printing, a STEREOTYPE, also known as a CLICHé, STEREOPLATE or simply a STEREO, was originally a "solid plate of type metal , cast from a papier-mâché or plaster mould (called a flong ) taken from the surface of a forme of type" used for printing instead of the original. The composition of individual cast metal types into lines with leading and furniture , tightly locked into a chase , was labor-intensive and costly. Cumulative, this full setup for printing a single page was called a forme. The printer would incur further expense through loss of the type for other uses while held in formes. However, once the flong and stereotype were created, the individual type, furniture, leading and chasing could be disassembled, and used for another project. Previously, publishers who did not accurately predict sales were forced into the expense of paying for the type to be reset for subsequent editions
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Printing Plate
OFFSET PRINTING is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water , the offset technique employs a flat (planographic ) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film (called "fountain solution"), keeping the non-printing areas ink-free. The modern "web" process feeds a large reel of paper through a large press machine in several parts, typically for several metres, which then prints continuously as the paper is fed through. Development of the offset press came in two versions: in 1875 by Robert Barclay of England
England
for printing on tin , and in 1904 by Ira Washington Rubel of the United States
United States
for printing on paper
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Onomatopoeia
An ONOMATOPOEIA (/ˌɒnəˌmætəˈpiːə, -ˌmɑː-/ (_ listen ), ; from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form : "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes. As an uncountable noun , onomatopoeia_ refers to the property of such words. Common occurrences of onomatopoeia include animal noises such as "oink", "miaow" (or "meow"), "roar" and "chirp". Onomatopoeia can differ between languages: it conforms to some extent to the broader linguistic system; hence the sound of a clock may be expressed as _tick tock_ in English , _dī dā_ in Mandarin , or _katchin katchin_ in Japanese , or "tik-tik" (टिक-टिक) in Hindi
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